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MMbAssignment 2: LASA: Etiology and Treatment

Jessica Case: Psychological Evaluation 

Confidential: For Professional Use Only 

Name:
Date of Birth:
Date of Evaluation: Clinician: 

Reason for Referral 

Jessica E. Smith 7-18-68
4-12-09
S. Freud, PhD 

Smith was referred for a psychological evaluation by Bart Jackson of the Division of Vocational Rehabilitation to assess her current level of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional functioning and to provide recommendations for vocational service planning. 

Background History 

The following background information was obtained from an interview with Smith and a review of the demographic information sheet that she completed before the evaluation. 

Smith is a forty-one-year-old Caucasian female who was referred for a psychological evaluation by the Division of Vocational Rehabilitation to assist with determining eligibility and to assess whether her emotional problems are interfering with her ability to work. She initially requested assistance from the Division of Vocational Rehabilitation in October 2008 to assist her with maintaining employment. At this time, she is interested in learning new skills to enable her to find full-time work in an office setting. 

Smith was born in Jersey City, New Jersey, and raised in a small nearby town, Williamsport, Pennsylvania. She is the oldest of three children born to her mother and father following an uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery. Her younger sisters relied upon her for their after-school child care once their mother returned to work when she was twelve years old. She spoke of her mother as having been physically and emotionally abusive in the past, often yelling, hitting her, and pushing her around. While her mother took her frustration out on Smith, her father would drink alcohol in excess. To cope with the difficult situation at home, she began to drink alcohol and cut herself with a straight-edged razor. Smith was active in school-related activities. She did not receive special educational services or have significant behavioral problems in school, describing the classroom as a safe place where she could be a ―kid.‖ Smith graduated from high school and began attending a business college in Allentown, Pennsylvania. 

After attending classes for several months, Smith dropped out to spend more time with her friends and to begin working at various part-time jobs. She has worked as a waitress, in a grocery store, and as a babysitter. After leaving school, Smith returned home, where she began spending time with old friends who drank alcohol and used recreational drugs. By the age of eighteen, she had begun to starve herself and burn herself with a lighter. Her second to youngest sister was killed in a car wreck around this time. To assist her with coping, Smith began to drink on a regular basis and rely upon crank (crystal meth) to regulate her mood. She attempted suicide by taking someone else’s prescription medications and slitting her wrists. She was subsequently hospitalized on a psychiatric unit for one week. After discharge, Smith did not follow through with recommendations to follow up with outpatient counseling. Instead, she resumed her alcohol and drug use as a means of coping with the emptiness that she was feeling inside. As her substance use became more problematic, Smith began to participate in inpatient and outpatient substance abuse programming. She met with a counselor at the local community mental health center and was admitted to a residential rehab program. She has remained drug free since leaving the program in 2004; however, she has had difficulty in remaining sober. Smith has been arrested three times for drinking under the influence (DUI) and at times, has temporarily lost her driver’s license. In November 2005, she sought mental health services again to assist her with remaining sober and to address her underlying history of depression. She continued to attend outpatient counseling on a sporadic basis until August 2006 when she recognized that her depressed mood rendered her incapacitated. Thus, she began attending two individual psychotherapy sessions per week, biweekly psychiatric consultations, and participating in weekly home- based case management services. 

Smith identifies her eight-year-old daughter and her boyfriend as her supports and sources of motivation to remain sober. She describes having had a series of physically and emotionally abusive relationships with men in the past, which have affected her mood and ability to cope with difficult situations. Smith has often become depressed and had thoughts of suicide after a relationship has ended. She acknowledges turning to alcohol or isolating herself when she feels overwhelmed. She initially moved to Jersey City two years ago to get away from the people whom she described as ―bad influences.‖ She has worked part-time at a local grocery store and participated in the vocational rehab program to assist her with returning to work. Despite their interventions, Smith has failed to maintain employment for longer than six months. She has also described herself as having difficulty maintaining friendships and trusting others. Smith currently lives in New Jersey with her daughter. She is unemployed and receives food stamps and Medicaid. 

Behavioral Observations 

Smith is a Caucasian female of average build who appeared to be her stated age. She was dressed casually and her grooming and hygiene were adequate. She wore small, round-framed glasses with her short-brown hair pushed back behind her ears. She maintained good eye contact with the examiner, often pushing her glasses up on her nose or placing her hair behind her ears as she spoke of something that made her feel uncomfortable. Smith was cooperative during the evaluation, appearing motivated to answer all questions posed to her in an honest and forthright manner. She seemed alert and well rested, relating appropriately to the examiner. Smith often apologized for not knowing an answer to a test item or stated that she could not do something that she perceived as difficult. 

Tests Administered  ·  Wechsler Adult Intelligence      Scale®—Third Edition (WAIS®–III)  ·  Wide Range Achievement      Test—Third Edition (WRAT-3)  ·  Minnesota Multiphasic      Personality Inventory: Second Edition (MMPI-2)  ·  Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt      Test  ·  Clinical Interview 

Mental Status Examination Results 

Smith reports an extensive history of mental health treatment, having received inpatient and outpatient treatment for depression and substance abuse. She has been prescribed Prozac, Paxil, Remeron, Klonopin, Xanax, Valium, and Librium to assist with managing her depressive symptomology and difficulties with controlling her anxiety and physical withdrawal from alcohol and methadone. Smith’s attitude toward this evaluation seemed quite positive as evidenced by her interest in participating in the evaluation and self- report. She appeared to answer all questions honestly and did not appear to be irritated with the evaluation process. Her responses were spontaneous and she needed minimal redirection to respond to the questions that were asked of her. Smith was oriented to person, place, and time and denied having experienced auditory or visual hallucinations. She denied current thoughts of suicide; however, she acknowledged having attempted suicide as a teen. Smith reportedly used a razor blade to slash her arms, hit herself with a hammer in the face, took someone else’s prescription medication, and burned her arms with a lighter after fighting with her mother, breaking up with a boyfriend, feeling rejected, and losing her younger sister. She reported having had a couple of mutually fulfilling relationships in the past, although she indicated that she had difficulty getting along with people. Her remote and recent memory showed no signs of impairment; however, her ability to make realistic life decisions was marred. Medical history is significant for a back injury that occurred following a car wreck (1984) and removal of her gall bladder (1996). Since the car wreck, Smith has experienced lower back pain when lifting heavy weights or moving in an awkward fashion. Assessment Results and Interpretations 

The WAIS®–III was administered to obtain an estimate of Smith’s current level of cognitive functioning. The results from this evaluation suggest that Smith is functioning within the Low Average range of cognitive functioning with no significant difference evident between her verbal and nonverbal reasoning abilities. Overall, Smith demonstrated abilities ranging from the Low Average to Average range with relative strengths in her word knowledge, categorical thinking, and ability to distinguish essential from nonessential details with a relative weakness in her abstract reasoning skills. 

Smith’s WRAT-3 performance showed high school–level reading, eighth grade–level spelling, and fifth grade–level arithmetic skills. She achieved a Low Average range standard score on the reading and spelling subtests with a Borderline range standard score on the arithmetic subtest. She reported having had difficulty with arithmetic in school and often becoming too anxious to complete her assignments or finish test items. Thus, this score is likely an underestimate of her current level of functioning. Results suggest that her fundamental academic functioning is below average; however, due to the lack of discrepancy between her achievement and intelligence test scores, the presence of a learning disorder was not evidenced. 

Visual Processing and Visual–Motor Integration 

Smith’s ability to reproduce or copy designs was assessed on an instrument involving visual–motor integration and fine-motor coordination. She appeared to accurately see the stimulus figures and understand what she saw; however, she had difficulty translating her perceptions into coordinated motor action. She completed the Bender-Gestalt test in two minutes, forty-two seconds and incurred four errors of distortion and rotation. A short completion time such as this is often associated with impulsiveness and limited concentration. 

Personality Assessment Results 

The MMPI-2 was administered to assess Smith’s personal attitudes, beliefs, and experiences. Smith’s MMPI-2 profile suggests that she acknowledges that she is experiencing a number of psychological symptoms. She is likely to be experiencing a great deal of stress and seeking attention for her problems. At times, Smith comes across as a confused woman who is distractible, has memory problems, and may be exhibiting personality deterioration. Thus, she is in need of intensive outpatient therapy and psychotropic medication to continue to address her long-term personality problems. Smith might be described as an angry woman who is immature, engages in extremely pleasure-oriented behaviors, and feels alienated. She is likely to feel insecure in relationships, act impulsively, and have difficulty developing loving relationships with others. She often manipulates others (men) and may hedonistically use other people for her own satisfaction without concern for them. She has difficulty meeting and interacting with other people, is uneasy and overcontrolled in social situations, and tends to be rather introverted. 

Smith has a negative self-image and often engages in unproductive ruminations. She frequently reports having numerous somatic complaints when she is anxious and feels as though other people are talking about her. Under stress, her physical complaints will likely exacerbate. Her insight into her problems is limited and she often attempts to find solutions that are simple and concrete. She may prefer to be alone or with a small group due to feeling alienated from the environment. She often exhibits poor judgement, emotional liability, and impulsivity. Smith may become upset easily and overreact to situations. Her profile reflects a chronic pattern of maladjustment, which may affect her ability to solve problems and fulfill her obligations. It is likely that Smith has a history of underachievement in school and in the work force due to her inability to cope with difficult situations. 

M3 Assignment 2 RA,

My paper

Diagnostic Formulation

Introduction

Jenny Smith is a 41-year-old woman living with her husband and her eight-year-old daughter in Jersey City. She is currently unemployed and survives on Medicaid and food stamp. Jenny frequently takes alcohol and isolates herself whenever things are overwhelmed with situations. The motive for her stay in Jersey was to keep off peers who she believes brings terrible influence on her life with regards to drugs and alcohol. The primary diagnosis for Smith is acute stress disorder (ASD) because she has experienced traumatic events in her past life.  

Problem

Smith has been struggling with alcohol and substance abuse. She has difficulties in maintaining her job and often resorts to substance and drug abuse whenever she feels depressed Jenny has a problem staying sober even after having gone through individual psychotherapy sessions in the past. She has emotional instability, and sometimes contemplates suicide. Smith cannot cope with the challenges of life. Smith is socially withdrawn from people whenever he is sober, and whenever she is experiencing difficulties in life. She is incapable of controlling her alcohol and drug addiction. Smith has low self-esteem and has a negative self-perception. This attitude can be a significant contributing factor to the drug addiction behavior since she tries to be the happy app the time through substance and drug abuse.  

Primary Diagnosis

Acute Stress Disorder

Acute stress disorder (ASD) or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a metal condition signified by experiencing imaginations of adverse events that happened in the past. People with this disorder tend to avoid people, specific places, and activities that bring back negative memories of past experiences (McKinnon et al., 2016). Individuals may have difficulty sleeping, are jumpy, and are easily angered or irritated by specific actions. The required stressors for this condition include exposure to life-threatening situations, or learning that a loved one’s life was exposed, or loss of a loved one, intrusion symptoms such as unwanted negative memories, flashbacks, and emotional distress (McKinnon et al., 2016). Smith’s conditions fit these criteria since she was consistently beaten by her mother when she was young, her sister who. Jenny was close to died in an accident, and she also almost got an accident. She has even gone through negative experiences in the past relationships with men who beat her up. The traumatic memories hurt her well-being because Jenny resorts to alcohol, and avoids people. As such, what she has gone through makes it likely that she has ASD. It is the most likely disorder affecting her according to the experiences that she has had in life, thus making it the primary diagnosis.

Secondary Diagnosis

Non Suicidal Self-Injury Disorder

Non-suicidal self-injury disorder is a mental condition signified by the tendency to intentionally inflict pain and injury to oneself without thinking about ending one’s life (Zetterqvist, 2015). The criteria for a condition to be regarded as this, there should be at least five attempts to inflict bodily injury in the past one year. The damage is related to an irresistible behavior, negative cognitive state, negative emotions, and thoughts such as depression or sadness, low self-esteem, the act lead to clinically significant injuries, and the behavior are not exhibited during periods of psychosis, or mental condition (Rudd et al., 2015). Smith’s tendency to inflict injuries on herself points to the possibility that she may have this disorder. This disorder has been considered as a secondary diagnosis because the frequency at which she injures herself within one year has not clarified. Besides, this behavior can be as a result of another mental disorder.

Differential Primary Diagnosis 

Neurotic Depression

Dysthymia is a chronic condition in which the patient always feels depressed. Patients often experience some periods of ordinary life that can span into days and even weeks. The criteria for determining the presence of this disorder is sleep disturbance, e feeling of inadequacy and everything does not seem to be useful in life (Vandeleur et al., 2017). The sufferers are usually able to cope up with the demands of day-to-day life. The onset of the disorder is often in late teenage and the twenties.

Furthermore, there is a lack of interests in leisure activities or almost everything in the most time of the day, which can continue for many days. The patient also has reduced the ability to stay focused for a long time. The reason why this Smith can be suffering from neurotic depression is that she exhibits these symptoms. Smith’s health issues started during her teenage years when she dropped out of school to join alcohol and drug-addicted peers. Jenny has a feeling of guilt and worthlessness whenever in social environments and avoids people as much as possible can. Further, she feels normal on some occasions, but sometimes the depression overcomes her to the extent that she resorts to alcohol and drug abuse. This is the primary differential diagnosis since all the descriptions of the disorder fit what Smith is going through, except that in this disorder, there are no traumatic experiences to qualify thereby making it the differential primary diagnosis. 

Differential Secondary Diagnosis

Severe Alcohol Use Disorder

Smith may likely be suffering from acute alcohol use disorder (SAUD). Many symptoms are associated with SAUD that indicate the presence of the disease. The DSM-5 provides 11 criteria which indicate that someone is suffering from the disorder depending on the severity. A person is said to be suffering from SAUD if he/she has at least six of the 11 symptoms provided in the MSM-5 (Connor, Haber & Hall, 2016). Smith can be suffering from this disorder because she exhibits the following symptoms that are among the 11 in the list. She has wanted to quit drinking or reduce her intake but has not been able to more than once.

Further, Smith spends a lot of her time drinking alcohol and also takes time to get over the aftermath of drinking. She sometimes ends up drinking more alcohol than she originally planned, and take more than planned time in drinking. Another DSM-5 pointer of SAUD depicted by Smith is that alcohol consumption or the sickness effects that it brings have often made her lose her work, and made her quit school. Another pointer is that Smith has given up essential activities such as visiting relatives and games for the sake of alcohol (Connor, Haber & Hall, 2016). 

Another element that exhibited by Smith is that she has on some occasions got in dangerous situations after drinking alcohol, and has also increased her chances of sustaining injuries. Finally, Smith has continued to drink alcohol despite often feeling depressed and anxious as a result of alcohol abuse. Smith exhibits almost all the symptoms in the SAUD category. Smith has been having trouble controlling her alcohol addiction. Alcohol on one occasion endangered her life when she was driving under the influence and lost control of the vehicle, which made her license to be revoked. Smith has also been unable to resist the urge to drink even when acknowledges that her depression is at a high. This weakness coupled with the fact that alcohol has derailed her personal and professional growth indicates that she is suffering from SAUD. Nevertheless, Jenny also takes recreational drugs, which can have similar or worse effects, although it is not clear whether Jenny has taken recreational drugs in the past one year. Although Smith has SAUD, this disorder may have been propagated by the difficulties that she has experienced in her entire life thereby making this diagnosis to be the differential secondary diagnosis.

The possibility of Appropriateness or other diagnoses

According to the symptoms that Smith is experiencing, other diagnoses can work for her. This is because the criteria for determining the complications that she is suffering from are related. Besides, the descriptions of her experiences; the symptoms that she feels; and her lifestyle and behaviors induced by the disorder fit in a wide variety of diagnoses. As such, any determination different from the provided ones can be applied depending on the extent to which she can cooperate. However, when other diagnoses with which her disorder share similar symptoms are used, it will be recommended that they are applied in combination rather than be used singly. This is because their remedies may not be as comprehensive as the ones that will be applied for the regular diagnoses.

Why the Actual Diagnoses are a Better Fit than the Differential Diagnoses

The actual diagnoses are a better fit than the differential diagnoses because according to the symptoms of Smith’s disorders, there are elements in which her life was threatened at one time or another. From her history, she had experienced traumatic events when she was young, which have the potential to leave a trail of disturbing memories. The traumatic events are usually signified by severe depression that can significantly interfere with a person’s normal life operations. Therefore, the actual diagnoses are a better fit than the differential ones since they both involve a scenario in which the patient or their loved ones were in life-threatening conditions one time during their lifetime, and the memories persist.

Conclusion

During her development, Smith had terrible childhood experiences. Her mother frequently assaulted her and did not relate with her kindly while her father was an alcoholic who never defended her. These frequent abuses by her mother may have led to the development of anxiety and depression. Furthermore, in the course of her development, one of her siblings died, which also may have contributed to her psychological and emotional issues. Smith dropped out of high school and joined peers who influenced her into drug abuse. She has attempted suicide on several occasions and has also inflicted pain to her body using objects. Her adulthood frustrations are likely caused by abusive boyfriends. Smith has been on individual psychotherapy, psychiatric consultations, and has undergone a home-based care system. The primary diagnosis for Smith is acute stress disorder (ASD) because she has had traumatic experiences on many occasions in her past life.

References

Connor, J. P., Haber, P. S., & Hall, W. D. (2016). Alcohol use disorders. The Lancet, 387(10022), 988-998.

McKinnon, A., Meiser‐Stedman, R., Watson, P., Dixon, C., Kassam‐Adams, N., Ehlers, A., …  &Dalgleish, T. (2016). The latent structure of Acute Stress Disorder symptoms in trauma‐exposed children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and  Psychiatry,57(11), 1308-1316.

Vandeleur, C. L., Fassassi, S., Castelao, E., Glaus, J., Strippoli, M. P. F., Lasserre, A. M., … & Angst, J. (2017). Prevalence and correlates of DSM-5 major depressive and related  disorders in the community. Psychiatry research, 250, 50-58.

Rudd, M. D., Bryan, C. J., Wertenberger, E. G., Peterson, A. L., Young-McCaughan, S., Mintz, J., … & Wilkinson, E. (2015). Brief cognitive-behavioral therapy effects on post-treatment suicide attempts in a military sample: results of a randomized clinical trial with 2-year follow-up. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(5), 441-449.

Zetterqvist, M. (2015). The DSM-5 diagnosis of nonsuicidal self-injury disorder: a review of the empirical literature. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, 9(1), 31-46.

  

   

you reviewed a case study about Jessica, made primary and secondary diagnoses, and identified differential diagnoses for each principal and secondary diagnosis. The skills you developed and the feedback you received after completing this required assignment, will significantly help you in completing the following LASA. For example, both assignments (RA and LASA), require you to complete similar tasks such as identifying the principal and secondary diagnoses, providing rationale for the diagnoses, and offering differential (alternative) diagnoses.

In this assignment, you will discuss the etiology and treatment of your principal and secondary diagnoses for the following case study using a minimum of five peer-reviewed sources on etiology and a minimum of five peer-reviewed sources on treatment. Your paper should have separate sections for the etiology of each principal and secondary diagnosis, therapeutic modalities for each principal and secondary diagnosis, justification of the selected therapeutic modalities for the disorders, application of the treatment for the disorders, and a reference page for your sources. Your citations and references should be in APA style, and your paper should be 8–10 pages in length.

read the second case study (Psychological Evaluation for Homer Brine).

Psychological Evaluation 

Confidential: For Professional Use Only 

Name:
Date of Birth:
Date of Evaluation: Clinician: 

Reason for Referral 

Homer Brine 1-11-65 7-30-08
A. Adler, PhD 

Brine was referred by the Division of Family Services for a psychological evaluation to assess his current level of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional functioning and to provide recommendations for outpatient mental health services and family reunification. 

Background History 

The following background information was obtained from an interview with Brine and a review of available records. 

Brine is a forty-three-year-old Caucasian male who was referred for a psychological evaluation by the Division of Family Services to assist with providing recommendations for outpatient mental health services and family reunification. He became involved with the Division of Family Services after he was arrested for sexually abusing his daughter. Brine was informed that the results of the evaluation would be utilized to develop opinions and conclusions regarding the likelihood that he would revictimize his daughter. In addition, he was told that the report or the examiner might appear at his court proceedings to give evidence regarding his past, present, or potential future mental state. Brine chose to participate in the evaluation recognizing the nature of the evaluation and its purpose. 

Brine was born in York County, Pennsylvania, in a rural farming community near the Maryland state line. He was the older of two children raised in a ―traditional Christian home.‖ When Brine was a young boy, his family moved to Wheeling, West Virginia, due to his father’s employment with a mining company. Brine’s mother was a ―stay-at-home mom‖ who was actively involved in her sons’ school-related activities. Brine described his parents as hardworking people who always supported him. He reported that he had begun having school learning problems in middle school related to comprehending and retaining learned materials. Brine described himself as a ―quiet‖ child who ―always had difficulty in school.‖ He described being involved with special educational services throughout his secondary education (middle school and high school). He received small group instruction and individualized assistance with learning arithmetic skills, developing memory skills, and improving his comprehension. Brine was an impulsive, distractible, and active boy who had difficulty completing school assignments and interacting with peers in the classroom. He obtained part-time employment after school and during summer vacations and worked for the Natural Services Department cleaning campgrounds. Although Brine enjoyed working for the Natural Services Department, he was unable to obtain full-time employment after his high school graduation due to his learning problems. 

Brine continued to live with his parents after he graduated from high school, moving back to York County, Pennsylvania, with his family after his father lost his job (was laid off). He reported having felt awkward in social situations throughout his teenage years, choosing not to date due to a fear of being rejected by his female peers. Brine’s difficulty with social skills not only affected his interactions with others but also interfered with his ability to communicate with his coworkers and supervisors in a work-related environment. He has had difficulty maintaining employment as evidenced by his history of losing jobs due to poor attendance and insubordination. After many failed vocational pursuits, Brine and his family began working 

with the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation (OVR) to assist him with job training and social skills development. He described having participated along with several work crews doing janitorial work at local schools, office buildings, and small businesses. Brine stated that he enjoyed working independently due to the difficulties he faced in relating to his coworkers. He often needed assistance with handling interpersonal conflicts and managing his anger (negative mood). 

While at OVR, Brine met his wife, Kelda Brine, after an introduction by mutual friends. Their relationship progressed rapidly and within months, they began living together. Brine described his wife as a ―mentally retarded‖ and ―slow‖ woman who ―needs a lot of guidance.‖ She reportedly has difficulty with decision making and lacks appropriate parenting skills. Brine and his wife argue frequently due to her irresponsibility and irritable mood. They have a history of verbal and physical aggression toward one another, which has included pushing, saying hurtful things, and threatening to kill each other. Brine acknowledged having made statements that he did not mean and feeling remorseful after their arguments. Brine acknowledged that he was unable to set appropriate boundaries or create a structured environment at home. Although his parents often attempted to help him with establishing limits in his home, his wife would refuse. Brine’s mother and wife have a strained relationship due to their inability to communicate and their differences in parenting styles. Consequently, his wife has refused to accept help from her in-laws due to the fear that they ―would take her daughter away.‖ After the Division of Family Services became involved with his family, his wife’s biggest fear came true—their daughter was removed from the home and placed with his parents. 

Brine stated that he was incarcerated because he sexually molested his kid—he was in the closet naked with her. He described having had a pornographic magazine that he showed to his daughter and reportedly touched her inappropriately. Brine stated that he did ―not remember‖ touching his daughter at that time; however, he admitted to having his daughter touch him in his private area in the past. He spoke of their sexual relationship beginning when his daughter was seven years old. Brine had told his daughter ―not to talk about it‖ to anyone. He reported that his wife had walked in on them two years ago, saw what was happening, and didn’t say anything. He stated that his wife probably did not understand what was happening or did not want to know about it. Brine described the abuse as including both contact and noncontact acts. The sexual abuse involved multiple incidents over time as the activity progressed from less invasive to more invasive (began with exposure and fondling and had moved to digital and oral penetration). Although Brine denied having engaged in sexual intercourse with his daughter, he stated that she ―would be able to describe what it is‖ due to having walked into their (her parents’) bedroom without their knowledge. 

Brine and his wife have been referred counseling for marital therapy and assistance with parenting. He described having difficulty setting limits for his daughter and struggling with decision making. He reported that his daughter ―is in charge at home,‖ often ignoring her parents when she is told that she cannot do something. He has disciplined his daughter by taking something away from her, making her sit in

hmgt 372 assignment

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}  @media only screen and (hover: none), only screen and (-moz-touch-enabled: 1) { .d2l-button-icon-1[d2l-visible-on-ancestor-hide] {   opacity:1 !important;transform:translateY(0px) !important; }  .d2l-button-icon-1[d2l-visible-on-ancestor-hide][d2l-visible-on-ancestor-no-hover-hide] {   opacity:0 !important;transform:translateY(-10px) !important; }  }  .d2l-button-icon-1 {   display:inline-block; }  .d2l-button-icon-1[hidden] {   display:none; }  .d2l-button-icon-1 button.d2l-button-icon {   background-color:transparent;border-color:transparent;font-family:inherit;box-shadow:0 0 0 4px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0);border-radius:0.3rem;border-style:solid;border-width:1px;box-sizing:border-box;cursor:pointer;display:inline-block;margin:0;min-height:calc(2rem + 2px);outline:none;text-align:center;transition:box-shadow 0.2s;-webkit-user-select:none;-moz-user-select:none;-ms-user-select:none;user-select:none;vertical-align:middle;white-space:nowrap;width:auto;border-radius:0.3rem;min-height:calc(2rem + 2px);min-width:calc(2rem + 2px);position:relative; }  .d2l-button-icon-1[h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-icon {   left:calc(((2rem + 2px – 0.9rem) / 2) * -1); }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-icon-1[h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-icon, .d2l-button-icon-1[dir=”rtl”][h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-icon {   left:0;right:calc(((2rem + 2px – 0.9rem) / 2) * -1); }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-icon-1:host([h-align=”text”]) button.d2l-button-icon, .d2l-button-icon-1[dir=”rtl”]:host([h-align=”text”]) button.d2l-button-icon {   left:0;right:calc(((2rem + 2px – 0.9rem) / 2) * -1); }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-icon-1[h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-icon, .d2l-button-icon-1[dir=”rtl”][h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-icon,.d2l-button-icon-1 [dir=”rtl”] [h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-icon {   left:0;right:calc(((2rem + 2px – 0.9rem) / 2) * -1); }  :host([dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-icon-1[h-align=”text”]) button.d2l-button-icon, :host(.d2l-button-icon-1[dir=”rtl”][h-align=”text”]) button.d2l-button-icon {   left:0;right:calc(((2rem + 2px – 0.9rem) / 2) * -1); }  .d2l-button-icon-1 button.d2l-button-icon::-moz-focus-inner {   border:0; }  .d2l-button-icon-1 button[disabled].d2l-button-icon:hover,.d2l-button-icon-1 button[disabled].d2l-button-icon:focus,.d2l-button-icon-1[active] button[disabled].d2l-button-icon {   background-color:transparent; }  .d2l-button-icon-1 button.d2l-button-icon:hover,.d2l-button-icon-1 button.d2l-button-icon:focus,.d2l-button-icon-1[active] button.d2l-button-icon,.d2l-button-icon-1.d2l-button-icon-hover button.d2l-button-icon,.d2l-button-icon-1.d2l-button-icon-focus button.d2l-button-icon {   background-color:#e6eaf0; }  .d2l-button-icon-1 button.d2l-button-icon:focus,.d2l-button-icon-1.d2l-button-icon-focus button.d2l-button-icon {   border-color:rgba(0, 111, 191, 0.4);box-shadow:0 0 0 4px rgba(0, 111, 191, 0.3); }  .d2l-button-icon-1 .d2l-button-icon.d2l-button-icon {   height:0.9rem;width:0.9rem; }  .d2l-button-icon-1[translucent] button.d2l-button-icon {   background-color:rgba(0,0,0,0.5);transition:background-color 0.5s; }  .d2l-button-icon-1[translucent] .d2l-button-icon.d2l-button-icon {   color:white; }  .d2l-button-icon-1[active][translucent] button.d2l-button-icon,.d2l-button-icon-1[translucent].d2l-button-icon-hover button.d2l-button-icon,.d2l-button-icon-1[translucent].d2l-button-icon-focus button.d2l-button-icon,.d2l-button-icon-1[translucent] button.d2l-button-icon:hover,.d2l-button-icon-1[translucent] button.d2l-button-icon:focus {   border:none;background-color:#006fbf;box-shadow:none; }  .d2l-button-icon-1 button[disabled].d2l-button-icon {   cursor:default;opacity:0.5; } .d2l-button-icon-0[d2l-visible-on-ancestor-init] {   visibility:hidden; }  .d2l-button-icon-0[d2l-visible-on-ancestor-transition] {   transition:transform 200ms ease-out, opacity 200ms ease-out !important; }  .d2l-button-icon-0[d2l-visible-on-ancestor-hide] {   opacity:0 !important;transform:translateY(-10px) !important; }  @media only screen and (hover: none), only screen and (-moz-touch-enabled: 1) { .d2l-button-icon-0[d2l-visible-on-ancestor-hide] {   opacity:1 !important;transform:translateY(0px) !important; }  .d2l-button-icon-0[d2l-visible-on-ancestor-hide][d2l-visible-on-ancestor-no-hover-hide] {   opacity:0 !important;transform:translateY(-10px) !important; }  }  .d2l-button-icon-0 {   display:inline-block; }  .d2l-button-icon-0[hidden] {   display:none; }  .d2l-button-icon-0 button.d2l-button-icon {   background-color:transparent;border-color:transparent;font-family:inherit;box-shadow:0 0 0 4px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0);border-radius:0.3rem;border-style:solid;border-width:1px;box-sizing:border-box;cursor:pointer;display:inline-block;margin:0;min-height:calc(2rem + 2px);outline:none;text-align:center;transition:box-shadow 0.2s;-webkit-user-select:none;-moz-user-select:none;-ms-user-select:none;user-select:none;vertical-align:middle;white-space:nowrap;width:auto;border-radius:4px;min-height:1.7rem;min-width:1.7rem;position:relative; }  .d2l-button-icon-0[h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-icon {   left:calc(((2rem + 2px – 0.9rem) / 2) * -1); }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-icon-0[h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-icon, .d2l-button-icon-0[dir=”rtl”][h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-icon {   left:0;right:calc(((2rem + 2px – 0.9rem) / 2) * -1); }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-icon-0:host([h-align=”text”]) button.d2l-button-icon, .d2l-button-icon-0[dir=”rtl”]:host([h-align=”text”]) button.d2l-button-icon {   left:0;right:calc(((2rem + 2px – 0.9rem) / 2) * -1); }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-icon-0[h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-icon, .d2l-button-icon-0[dir=”rtl”][h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-icon,.d2l-button-icon-0 [dir=”rtl”] [h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-icon {   left:0;right:calc(((2rem + 2px – 0.9rem) / 2) * -1); }  :host([dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-icon-0[h-align=”text”]) button.d2l-button-icon, :host(.d2l-button-icon-0[dir=”rtl”][h-align=”text”]) button.d2l-button-icon {   left:0;right:calc(((2rem + 2px – 0.9rem) / 2) * -1); }  .d2l-button-icon-0 button.d2l-button-icon::-moz-focus-inner {   border:0; }  .d2l-button-icon-0 button[disabled].d2l-button-icon:hover,.d2l-button-icon-0 button[disabled].d2l-button-icon:focus,.d2l-button-icon-0[active] button[disabled].d2l-button-icon {   background-color:transparent; }  .d2l-button-icon-0 button.d2l-button-icon:hover,.d2l-button-icon-0 button.d2l-button-icon:focus,.d2l-button-icon-0[active] button.d2l-button-icon,.d2l-button-icon-0.d2l-button-icon-hover button.d2l-button-icon,.d2l-button-icon-0.d2l-button-icon-focus button.d2l-button-icon {   background-color:#e6eaf0; }  .d2l-button-icon-0 button.d2l-button-icon:focus,.d2l-button-icon-0.d2l-button-icon-focus button.d2l-button-icon {   border-color:rgba(0, 111, 191, 0.4);box-shadow:0 0 0 4px rgba(0, 111, 191, 0.3); }  .d2l-button-icon-0 .d2l-button-icon.d2l-button-icon {   height:0.9rem;width:0.9rem; }  .d2l-button-icon-0[translucent] button.d2l-button-icon {   background-color:rgba(0,0,0,0.5);transition:background-color 0.5s; }  .d2l-button-icon-0[translucent] .d2l-button-icon.d2l-button-icon {   color:white; }  .d2l-button-icon-0[active][translucent] button.d2l-button-icon,.d2l-button-icon-0[translucent].d2l-button-icon-hover button.d2l-button-icon,.d2l-button-icon-0[translucent].d2l-button-icon-focus button.d2l-button-icon,.d2l-button-icon-0[translucent] button.d2l-button-icon:hover,.d2l-button-icon-0[translucent] button.d2l-button-icon:focus {   border:none;background-color:#006fbf;box-shadow:none; }  .d2l-button-icon-0 button[disabled].d2l-button-icon {   cursor:default;opacity:0.5; }  .d2l-button-subtle-0 {   display:inline-block; }  .d2l-button-subtle-0 button.d2l-button-subtle {   background-color:transparent;border-color:transparent;font-family:inherit;padding:0.5rem 0.6rem;position:relative;box-shadow:0 0 0 4px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0);border-radius:0.3rem;border-style:solid;border-width:1px;box-sizing:border-box;cursor:pointer;display:inline-block;margin:0;min-height:calc(2rem + 2px);outline:none;text-align:center;transition:box-shadow 0.2s;-webkit-user-select:none;-moz-user-select:none;-ms-user-select:none;user-select:none;vertical-align:middle;white-space:nowrap;width:auto;font-size:0.7rem;line-height:1rem;font-weight:700;letter-spacing:0.2px; }  .d2l-button-subtle-0[h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-subtle {   left:-0.6rem; }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-subtle-0[h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-subtle, .d2l-button-subtle-0[dir=”rtl”][h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-subtle {   left:0;right:-0.6rem; }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-subtle-0:host([h-align=”text”]) button.d2l-button-subtle, .d2l-button-subtle-0[dir=”rtl”]:host([h-align=”text”]) button.d2l-button-subtle {   left:0;right:-0.6rem; }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-subtle-0:host([h-align=”text”]) button.d2l-button-subtle, .d2l-button-subtle-0[dir=”rtl”]:host([h-align=”text”]) button.d2l-button-subtle,.d2l-button-subtle-0 [dir=”rtl”] :host([h-align=”text”]) button.d2l-button-subtle {   left:0;right:-0.6rem; }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-subtle-0[h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-subtle, .d2l-button-subtle-0[dir=”rtl”][h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-subtle,.d2l-button-subtle-0 [dir=”rtl”] [h-align=”text”] button.d2l-button-subtle {   left:0;right:-0.6rem; }  .d2l-button-subtle-0 button.d2l-button-subtle::-moz-focus-inner {   border:0; }  .d2l-button-subtle-0 button[disabled].d2l-button-subtle:hover,.d2l-button-subtle-0 button[disabled].d2l-button-subtle:focus,.d2l-button-subtle-0[active] button[disabled].d2l-button-subtle {   background-color:transparent; }  .d2l-button-subtle-0 button.d2l-button-subtle:hover,.d2l-button-subtle-0 button.d2l-button-subtle:focus,.d2l-button-subtle-0[active] button.d2l-button-subtle,.d2l-button-subtle-0.d2l-button-subtle-hover button.d2l-button-subtle,.d2l-button-subtle-0.d2l-button-subtle-focus button.d2l-button-subtle {   background-color:#e6eaf0; }  .d2l-button-subtle-0 button.d2l-button-subtle:focus,.d2l-button-subtle-0.d2l-button-subtle-focus button.d2l-button-subtle {   border-color:rgba(0, 111, 191, 0.4);box-shadow:0 0 0 4px rgba(0, 111, 191, 0.3); }  .d2l-button-subtle-0 .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle {   color:#006fbf;vertical-align:middle; }  .d2l-button-subtle-0[icon] .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle {   padding-left:1.2rem; }  .d2l-button-subtle-0[icon][icon-right] .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle {   padding-left:0;padding-right:1.2rem; }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-subtle-0:host([icon]) .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle, .d2l-button-subtle-0[dir=”rtl”]:host([icon]) .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle {   padding-left:0;padding-right:1.2rem; }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-subtle-0:host([icon]) .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle, .d2l-button-subtle-0[dir=”rtl”]:host([icon]) .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle,.d2l-button-subtle-0 [dir=”rtl”] :host([icon]) .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle {   padding-left:0;padding-right:1.2rem; }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-subtle-0[icon] .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle, .d2l-button-subtle-0[dir=”rtl”][icon] .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle,.d2l-button-subtle-0 [dir=”rtl”] [icon] .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle {   padding-left:0;padding-right:1.2rem; }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-subtle-0:host([icon]):host([icon-right]) .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle, .d2l-button-subtle-0[dir=”rtl”]:host([icon]):host([icon-right]) .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle {   padding-left:1.2rem;padding-right:0; }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-subtle-0:host([icon]):host([icon-right]) .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle, .d2l-button-subtle-0[dir=”rtl”]:host([icon]):host([icon-right]) .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle,.d2l-button-subtle-0 [dir=”rtl”] :host([icon]):host([icon-right]) .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle {   padding-left:1.2rem;padding-right:0; }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-subtle-0[icon][icon-right] .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle, .d2l-button-subtle-0[dir=”rtl”][icon][icon-right] .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle,.d2l-button-subtle-0 [dir=”rtl”] [icon][icon-right] .d2l-button-subtle-content.d2l-button-subtle {   padding-left:1.2rem;padding-right:0; }  .d2l-button-subtle-0 d2l-icon.d2l-button-subtle-icon.d2l-button-subtle {   color:#006fbf;display:none;height:0.9rem;position:absolute;top:50%;transform:translateY(-50%);width:0.9rem; }  .d2l-button-subtle-0[icon] d2l-icon.d2l-button-subtle-icon.d2l-button-subtle {   display:inline-block; }  .d2l-button-subtle-0[icon][icon-right] d2l-icon.d2l-button-subtle-icon.d2l-button-subtle {   right:0.6rem; }  .d2l-button-subtle-0[dir=”rtl”][icon][icon-right] d2l-icon.d2l-button-subtle-icon.d2l-button-subtle {   left:0.6rem;right:auto; }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-button-subtle-0[icon][icon-right] d2l-icon.d2l-button-subtle-icon.d2l-button-subtle, .d2l-button-subtle-0[dir=”rtl”][icon][icon-right] d2l-icon.d2l-button-subtle-icon.d2l-button-subtle,.d2l-button-subtle-0 [dir=”rtl”] [icon][icon-right] d2l-icon.d2l-button-subtle-icon.d2l-button-subtle {   left:0.6rem;right:auto; }  .d2l-button-subtle-0 button[disabled].d2l-button-subtle {   cursor:default;opacity:0.5; }  d2l-menu-item {   background-color:#ffffff;box-sizing:border-box;cursor:pointer;display:block;font-size:0.8rem;outline:none;width:100%; }  d2l-menu-item[disabled],d2l-menu-item[disabled]:hover,d2l-menu-item[disabled]:focus {   cursor:default;opacity:0.75; }  d2l-menu-item[hidden] {   display:none; }  d2l-menu-item {   display:flex;padding:0.75rem 1rem; }  d2l-menu-item > span.d2l-menu-item {   flex:auto;line-height:1rem;overflow-x:hidden;overflow-y:hidden;text-overflow:ellipsis;white-space:nowrap; }  d2l-menu-item > d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item {   flex:none;margin-top:0.1rem; }  d2l-menu-item-separator {   display:block; }  d2l-menu-item-return {   background-color:#ffffff;box-sizing:border-box;cursor:pointer;display:block;font-size:0.8rem;outline:none;width:100%; }  d2l-menu-item-return[disabled],d2l-menu-item-return[disabled]:hover,d2l-menu-item-return[disabled]:focus {   cursor:default;opacity:0.75; }  d2l-menu-item-return[hidden] {   display:none; }  d2l-menu-item-return {   display:flex;padding:0.75rem 1rem; }  d2l-menu-item-return > span.d2l-menu-item-return {   flex:auto;line-height:1rem;overflow-x:hidden;overflow-y:hidden;text-decoration:none;text-overflow:ellipsis;white-space:nowrap; }  d2l-menu-item-return > d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item-return {   flex:none;margin-right:1rem;margin-top:0.1rem; }  [dir=”rtl”] d2l-menu-item-return > d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item-return, d2l-menu-item-return[dir=”rtl”] > d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item-return {   margin-right:0;margin-left:1rem; }  [dir=”rtl”] d2l-menu-item-return > d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item-return, d2l-menu-item-return[dir=”rtl”] > d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item-return,d2l-menu-item-return [dir=”rtl”]  > d2l-icon.d2l-menu-item-return {   margin-right:0;margin-left:1rem; }  .d2l-menu-0 {   box-sizing:border-box;display:inline-block;position:relative;left:0;overflow:hidden;width:100%;-webkit-transition:height 300ms linear;transition:height 300ms linear; }  .d2l-menu-0[child-view] {   display:none;position:absolute;top:0;left:100%; }  .d2l-menu-0[shown] {   display:inline-block; }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-hierarchical-view-content.d2l-child-view-show.d2l-menu {   -webkit-animation:show-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 forwards 300ms linear;animation:show-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 300ms forwards linear; }  .d2l-menu-0 .d2l-hierarchical-view-content.d2l-child-view-hide.d2l-menu {   -webkit-animation:hide-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 forwards 300ms linear;animation:hide-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 300ms forwards linear; }  @keyframes show-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,0); }  100% {   transform:translate(-100%,0); }  }  @-webkit-keyframes show-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0); }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(-100%,0); }  }  @keyframes hide-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 { 0% {   transform:translate(-100%,0); }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0); }  }  @-webkit-keyframes hide-child-view-animation-d2l-menu-0 { 0% {   -webkit-transform:translate(-100%,0); }  100% {   -webkit-transform:translate(0,0); }  }  .d2l-menu-0 {   box-sizing:border-box;display:block;width:100%;padding-top:1px; }  .d2l-menu-0[active] .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu d2l-menu-item-return[role=”menuitem”].d2l-menu,.d2l-menu-0[active] .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=”menuitem”],.d2l-menu-0[active] .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=”menuitemcheckbox”],.d2l-menu-0[active] .d2l-menu-items.d2l-menu > [role=”menuitemradio”] {   position:relative; 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}  .d2l-dropdown-menu-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-top.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-top-left-radius:0.3rem;border-top-right-radius:0.3rem; }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-bottom-left-radius:0.3rem;border-bottom-right-radius:0.3rem; }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-top-scroll.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-shadow:0 3px 3px 0 rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.05); }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-1 .d2l-dropdown-content-bottom-scroll.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-shadow:0 -3px 3px 0 rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.05); }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-dropdown-menu-1, .d2l-dropdown-menu-1[dir=”rtl”] {   left:auto;right:0;text-align:right; }  [dir=”rtl”] .d2l-dropdown-menu-1, .d2l-dropdown-menu-1[dir=”rtl”] {   left:auto;right:0;text-align:right; }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-1 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,-10px);opacity:0; }  100% {   transform:translate(0,0);opacity:1; }  }  @keyframes d2l-dropdown-above-animation-d2l-dropdown-menu-1 { 0% {   transform:translate(0,10px);opacity:0; 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}  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu {   position:absolute;display:inline-block;clip:rect(-5px, 21px, 8px, -7px);top:-7px;left:calc(50% – 7px);z-index:1; }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu > div.d2l-dropdown-menu {   background-color:#ffffff;border:1px solid #d3d9e3;border-radius:0.1rem;box-shadow:-4px -4px 12px -5px rgba(86, 90, 92, .2);height:16px;width:16px;transform:rotate(45deg);-webkit-transform:rotate(45deg); }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu {   top:auto;clip:rect(9px, 21px, 22px, -3px);bottom:-8px; }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[opened-above] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu > div.d2l-dropdown-menu {   box-shadow:4px 4px 12px -5px rgba(86, 90, 92, .2); }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0[no-pointer] .d2l-dropdown-content-pointer.d2l-dropdown-menu {   display:none; }  .d2l-dropdown-menu-0 .d2l-dropdown-content-position.d2l-dropdown-menu {   border-radius:0.3rem;display:inline-block;position:absolute; 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Total Quality Management in Higher Education Case Study: Quality in Practice at University College of Borås

Total Quality Management in Higher Education

TQM at University College of Boras

 

QASIM ALVI

8/22/2014

 

 

The study highlights the general principle of the TQM through a case study in the university of Boras

 

 

Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction:4

1.1Background:4

1.2 Quality System at University College of Boras:5

1.3 Research Area:6

1.4 Purpose of the Thesis:7

1.5 Thesis Structure:7

Chapter 2: Research Methodology:9

2.1 Induction and Deduction:9

2.2 Quality Research:9

2.3 Reliability and Validity:10

2.4 Data Collection:11

2.5 Aims and Objectives:12

2.6 Research Question:12

2.7 Survey and Questionnaire:13

Chapter 3: Summary Literature Review:15

3.1 Quality of Higher Education:16

Chapter 4: Limitation:19

 

 

Abstract:

The aim of the thesis is to shed light on the principles of TQM and identify the approach that can increase the effectiveness and efficiency of the academic institution. The study is based upon a case study of a university called “University College of Boras” that will explore the quality management of the administrative structure, departments and academic area. The study incorporates evaluation and analysis of the present quality work of the university. Moreover, the TQM principles are compared with the issues of the university in order to shed light on the weakness and strength of the institution. 

This dissertation will include a complete thorough analysis of the TQM of the university and identify the problem statements along with recommendation to improve the quality. The data will be collected through primary data collection method by conducting surveys and interviews whereas secondary data is collected by studying the preexisting articles, books and literature. 

 

Chapter 1: Introduction:

The Higher Education institutions are rapidly increasing methods and technologies in order to improve the quality of the academic institutions. The administrators of UCB has launched quality administration sector in order to improve the standard of their education system according to the principles of the Total Quality Management (Oakland, 2014). 

Higher Training Institutions (HEIs) has implemented the TQM principles, and it has reinforced the dimension of quality of institutions and subsequent education. The university has decided to conduct an evaluation of the quality work that we cover in the thesis therefore; we benchmark the assessment with the TQM philosophy. 

This chapter therefore, defines the background of the thesis, research area, purpose of thesis and structure of the thesis. Background:

 

At the start of the twentieth century a rapid development in higher vocational education was started. According to the statistics a rapid increment in the assort of students and scholars has occurred by 1940. From the year 1975 until 2000, university colleges were established as to increase the accessibility of the higher education in Sweden.

The higher education in Sweden emphasize on three basic attributes that incorporates education, research and cooperation with the society and rest of the culture. Moreover, the government of Sweden is also making efforts in the field of higher education and funding the higher education to almost 46%. (Hoang, 2010)

The University Colleges at Sweden are those institutes that do not offer the Research Education but they do offer degrees related to Masters and basic bachelors. 

The University College of Boras was found in the year 1977. According to the current data, UCB has more than 12500 students along with more than 800 employees. The campus of UCB is located at the heart of the Boras. The university consists of six different schools that offer several different multi discipline programs. The departments of University College of Boras are narrated as follows:Library and Information ScienceBusiness and InformaticsFashion and TextilesBehavioral Sciences and Teacher EducationEngineeringHealth Care and Caring Science

In addition to these departments, the university also has two other departments that are called a library and learning resources and central administration center. Figure 1 in the appendix shows the map of the University College of Boras. According to the University College of Boras their vision is to become an institute of a postgraduate education and declare itself as a Professional University instead of being a University College. 

1.2 Quality System at University College of Boras:

The University College of Boras is making efforts since the year 1990 by establishing the first version of the quality management in the year 1992. The quality program initiated by the University College of Boras along with the definition of its culture is studies in the dissertation. Moreover, the UCB board including the chairperson, staff and prefects are concerned about improving their quality work. The program of UCB that was launched in the year 1995 is based upon long-term goals that are for the development of the quality within different aspect of operations with the three-year perspective.

According to the statistics, the evaluation of the improvement was conducted in the year 1998. The board decided that the evaluation would help them to develop a new strategy and quality program for the year 2000 onwards.  The analysis of the quality starts by evaluating the performance of the teachers that includes a simple framework that assist in carrying out the analysis of all the attributes of the activities. 

Moreover, the UCB has a tool named Policy for kvalitetsarbete vid Högskolan I Borås/Policy that is considered as a guidance tool. In order to check and maintain the quality the UCB has a quality assurance system that includes the quality council, committees, chairperson and principal.

1.3 Research Area:

Education is one of the most important service industries in the commercial public sector. According to Babbar (1995) the quality of education is forms the permanent security and wealth of the societies and their subsequent people. In the last two decades, the quality of education and high standard has evolved to be a major concern for the education institutions and governments. Therefore, the explicit quality evaluation demand is increasing in the era today that has also increased the assurance process. Moreover, the funds that are launched by the government to the education sector also demand a quality assessment in order to ensure that education in the schools and universities are maintaining their standards. 

According to Nina and Maureen (2006), the quality of education will also help the university in increasing their number of students and provides an extra edge in the competitive market. Therefore, the HEIs are continuously seeking for the options that can improve the effectiveness of their high quality in education 

The quality of the education has therefore, evolved a new concept termed as “Total Quality Management” (TQM). The phenomenon applied to several to the business and industry is now implemented in the higher education institution in order to provide high quality standards. 

A brief investigation of TQM standards demonstrates the extent to which it could be actualized in HEIs, also numerous framework of TQM are appropriate with the work of HEIs as an aspect of the quality audit and assessment. TQM keeps on being considered by many people as inadmissible intend to the HEIs, still numerous colleges and universities apply TQM as an instrument to enhance the nature of higher education. For example, U.S., U.K., Australia, and New Zealand organizations have received TQM in their advanced education, and there are some effective stories related to the situation. 

 

1.4 Purpose of the Thesis:

The main goal of this dissertation is about an evaluation of the quality work of the College of Borås. Actually, the Committee for Evaluation and Self-evaluation has pointed out this work to get a general picture of the current quality work of college. This board was designated by the College Board to do an inside evaluation of the quality work of the college every year. This dissertation thus focuses on shedding light on the present aspect of the quality of the University College of Boras.

The dissertation is based upon the assessment and evaluation that is conducted in the shape of a TQM approach and the quality arrangement of this college. This implies that there will be a few examinations about how this establishment works with quality, then discoveries will be in the hope to measure up with a particular methodology to discover the shortcomings and fortifies of the quality arrangement of this college. This assessment and evaluation as benchmarking with a TQM methodology will prompt highlighting the general standards of TQM. It will additionally propel the inquiry of how this methodology might be use to enhance the nature of a scholarly organization, which is the largely goal of this work. 

Overall, the aim is to provide a complete documentation in the connection of quality and a specific TQM approach, which will encourage this college school to fulfill its requirements of stakeholders, including administration board, students, staff, authorities, distinctive national unions to accomplish the college’s objectives and vision

1.5 Thesis Structure:

The study will incorporate the following structure: 

Section 1: Introduction: This section will begin with a few foundations about the work. It will proceed by presenting exploration region, and consistently will clarify the motivation behind the proposal. At last, it will portray delimitations and postulation structure. 

Section 2: Theoretical Frame of References: In this section, the point is about some Primary definitions. At that point, it will proceed by presenting a TQM methodology and portrayal of its comprising parts, and inevitably, a model will be created for the usage of this specific methodology. 

Part 3: Methods: The purpose of this section is about portrayal of the exploration technique. At that point, there will be some discourse about whether this examination is qualitative or quantitative. This part will proceed by a few dialogs about the dependability and legitimacy of this work. Finally, we will try to gather information and data. 

Section 4: University College of Borås: This section will begin by a prologue to the UCB, furthermore it will proceed by exploring the quality arrangement of this college school. The section will explore the history along with the present condition of the polices of the UCB for managing quality of education

Section 5: Analysis and examination: This section will start by investigating the statistics gathered by the examination based upon data collected from past section. The study will address the issues found from the examination. In the following parts of dissertation, suggestions and recommendations for development is depicted based upon the data collected. This part is focused around what it has been talked about in hypothetical case of reference and dissection of discoveries

Section 6: Conclusion: This part would be the end of the dissertation that will define the entire work. Thus, the entire work will be audited unequivocally and the last conclusion will be portrayed at the end.

Chapter 2: Research Methodology:

The research methodology is termed as hermeneutic methodology that includes study of preexisting literature and result of the research.  The research utilize of doing an examination, based upon induction, deduction and abduction, two most normal ones will be illuminated here and we will attempt to propel the one they have utilized.

2.1 Induction and Deduction:

 

Induction strategy alludes to arriving at from general to particular in examination work. Indeed, encounters assume imperative part in outline of inductive technique. Utilizing estimations and quantitative routines is normal is impelling. Induction begins with and hazy issue. At that point a exhaustive perspective of the vague matter will be made, Bengtsson (1995). Conclusion strategy calls attention to arriving at from general standards or speculations to finishes of each singular wonder, Patel and Davidsson (1994). Actually, finding implies that the scientist moves to from accessible writing and present issues to outcome come about particular occasion. For this situation, one theory examination carried out amid the test studies. The primary objective of finding is dissecting nature of the organization items and after that contrasting the dissection and the hypothesis. Given that, this examination is as careful investigation, and on the off chance that studies the most well-known philosophy is snatching, as indicated by Alvesson and Sköldberg (1994), this procedure will be utilized for this proposition work. Along these lines, the observational application of TQM will be produced and the hypothesis will be balanced 

2.2 Quality Research:

The research methodology, of this study incorporates both qualitative and quantitative methods. Indeed, the qualitative and quantitative examination relies upon the quality and status of the issue. The base of qualitative examination is on study things and non-evaluated information like considerations and standards. For the most part, the center would be on diverse methods for data gathering to get a deeper understanding of the study things. Qualitative exploration accentuates on meetings, meeting, furthermore perception. Because of utilizing these methodologies, a profound seeing about the matter will be picked up, Marshall and Rossman (2006). Truth be told, qualitative exploration trust and apply four strategies to collect and accumulate the information and data. These four systems are support in area, immediate perception, profound meeting, furthermore examination of archives and material society. These strategies sort out the fundamental part of the examination. A few auxiliary and exceptional routines for information gathering improve them. Four picking the strategies for exploration and applying viably, we utilize Brantlinger’s helpful clarification of seven sections of discriminating explanations for qualitative request. The primary part alludes to analyst’s perspectives of the way of examination. The second part demonstrates scientist’s area relative to members. Third component is about the course of my research.

The most imperative divisions are fourth and fifth parts which identify with the goals of the examination and principle crowd of study. The sixth part brings up the analyst’s political area. Finally, seventh part alludes to the perspective of the scientist about herself and the members towards the activity of association. Suppositions made in these seven sorts diagram how the exceptional exploration routines are viewed as and executed amid a study. Quantitative examination concentrates on gathering an extensive number of information things that might be evaluated. The quantitative examination gives data that could be measurable and conclusions and results could be picked up on the premise of these. In the examination and study working, utilizing both qualitative and quantitative exploration strategies might be connected. The qualitative and quantitative routines finish one another in a compelling way. Hence, we need to utilize and dissect the results delivered by both qualitative and quantitative routines in the work of examination. In any case, this work was qualitative and the analysts depend on the current records from of boards of trustees and committees. 

2.3 Reliability and Validity:

The significance of validity is to outline questionnaires defining our inquiries and collect the subsequent answers of respondent in the own perspective. To accomplish high validity, inquiries questions must be arranged so that they are in concurrence with the overview’s point and what is planned to be measured will be measured and nothing more, Bell (1995). Dependability clarifies how estimations strategies oppose against the undesirable impacts. In most cases, dependability of meetings and surveys relies on upon individual status, solace elements, also detailing variables, Bell (1995). A viable approach to achieve high unwavering quality in meeting is picking proper inquiries, enough time designated to each one inquiry, and a nature’s domain. In addition, we must attempt to dodge of blunders in making poll, because these slips can diminish the unwavering quality of inquiries in meeting. Picking faultless and justifiable inquiries in data get-together stage makes a difference us in expanding unwavering quality and prompts picking up viable data and information identified with utilization, Ringer (1995). Notwithstanding, in this work the creators have attempted to build the legitimacy and dependability of the work taking into account the accompanying certainties. The inquiries for meetings have planned ahead of time and the creators’ director has checked them. Moreover, these inquiries were given to the interviewees few days before the gathering to give enough time to them, and they chose interviewees were designated in the top position, they were the seats of distinctive advisory groups. In the gathering session, enough time has been allotted for each one inquiry. At last, after talks with the scientists have gathered the answers and gave answers were offered once again to the respondents for last approbation of what it has been talked about. 

2.4 Data Collection:

In the venture of information and data accumulation, there are two gatherings of information known as primary and secondary data collection method. Primary information is identified with information that is picked up by distinctive methods, for example, meetings and surveys. The secondary data collections are writing studies, daily paper, magazines, related articles, and web. 

Primary data might be gathered in three ways: perceptions, presumption analysis, and meetings, Dahström (1996). Utilizing meetings and perception is more regular than presumption examination. Contingent upon the information required, the inquiries in the meetings are distinctive. The inquiries in the questionnaire must be constrained into few attributes for replying. Qualitative overviews are suitable with open inquiries and result questions. For this situation, planning an inquiry for composing the own elucidation about each one inquiry can prompt better results

Qualitative research utilizes and trusts on profound question more than alternate techniques for information accumulation.” Kahlan and Cannell clarify questioning as “a discussion with a reason”. A qualitative meeting is described on its width rather than its profundity. In actuality, Talking with varies as far as a previous development and in the extension the interviewee has in offering an explanation to inquiries. Meetings are isolated into three gatherings as per “Patton”. These gatherings are the casual conversational meeting, the general meeting aide methodology, and the institutionalized open-finished meeting. Qualitative in profundity meeting are like discussion as opposed to formal systems with perceived answers. For this situation, the questioner presents a few truths and basic issues to uncover the member’s perspectives, yet then again regards how the member structures the answers. Also, systematization in making inquiries must be considered when numerous interviewees are took an interest in the meeting or the clarification and examination of the results is basic for questioner, Marshall and Rossman (2006).

2.5 Aims and Objectives:

The aim of the research is to:

1. Prove that the Total Quality Management concepts increase the quality of HE institutions

2. Distinguish the difficulties in TQM implementation in HE Institutions.

3. Identify the TQM of the University College of Boras

4. Compare the quality of the education at UCB with eth TQM principles

2.6 Research Question:

The study utilizes descriptive methodology, which focuses around analysis of the writing, pre-existing research and perceptions related to TQM for advanced education organizations and supporting the implementation of the TQM ideas in advanced education foundations in UCB. Thus, the study is based upon answering the following questions:What is TQM Model of Higher Education?What is the TQM of the University College of Boras?What are the issues that resist TQM in UCB?

 

2.7 Survey and Questionnaire:

Questionnaire For the Quality CouncilWhat are the vision and goals of the UBC?What approach does UBC adopt in order to achieve these golas?How far is the UBC from achieving these goals?What are the main concerns of the quality council?What are the main responsibilities of the quality council of UBC?What is meant by quality effort and how do you achieve it?How can UBC improve their student’s services?Does UBC cooperate with the trade or industry zone?How can UBC increase the rate of effectiveness and use the resources efficiently?What is the quality model for Higher education?For whom is UBC working?What measures are used to analyze quality improvement of UBC?

 

Questionnaire For Committee For Sustainable DevelopmentHow does UCB carry out its actions to reach sustainable growth?How far is this UBC from sustainable growth objectives? (What are the barriers?)How sustainable growth can help this university college to progress the quality of its higher education?What is the definition of quality in higher education?For whom is this university college working?

 

 

Questionnaire for Committee For Evaluation and Self-AssessmentWhat are the strategic goals of this university college?What are the approaches of the university college to reach these goals?How far is this university college from those goals? (What are the main barriers?)What are the main tasks of the Self-assessment and Evaluation Committee, and how does it work?Why does the university college assess the quality work?Who are assessing the quality work, except the self-assessment and evaluation committee?How often do they try to do the assessment of the quality work in this university college?Is this institution co-operating with quality assurances and accreditation agencies? If possible, please name and explain to what extent they co-operate?How do they measure the quality improvement in this university college? (By satisfied

Stakeholders, by benchmarking, by the number of educated students, by the number of applicants, by the number of publications, is it qualitative or quantitative, etc.)What is the definition of quality in higher education?What kind of assessment would you prefer to use in the quality work, why? (Self-assessment,external audit, benchmarking, etc)

 

 

Chapter 3: Summary Literature Review:

In light of these truths, Hellsten and Klefsjö (2000, pp. 238-44) have characterized TQM as something significantly more than center qualities, and to them it is an administration framework. A framework in the feeling of Deming, “A system of reliant parts that cooperate to attempt to fulfill the point of the framework”, Deming (1994, p.50), which one of the parts is center qualities. Two different parts are strategies and devices that help the center qualities. Actually, definition gave by Hellsten and Klefsjö stresses that the idea of TQM, as a entire thought, is a blend of qualities, strategies and devices, where they have jointed to achieve higher client fulfillment with less assets utilization, see figure 2. This entire idea could be taken to mean as an administration framework. 

In executing the TQM in an association or assembling organization, administration is the fundamental issue. The top administration must consider the objectives of the organization, those moves that must make set up, quality monetarily, and assets, (for example, administration assets) that are important for attaining the vision of the organization, in all parts of value. Henceforth, for enhancing the quality of an association, duty and information of the authority is the first step. After that, a society must be existed focused around some center qualities, which are Customer focusDecisions based on factsProcess focusContinuous improvementCommitment of everybody 

Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a strategy that relentlessly distinguishes client needs also desires on administration particulars and outlines parameter and exchanges these needs to administration qualities and extra to the administration process. Additionally, it is an effective philosophy for correspondence and interest. For this situation, it needs gather parts to work together with a specific end goal to accomplish a crucial premise for nonstop and coordinated administration change. To attain and execute QFD, we need to take after four steps. Initially is doing a business sector examination in request to comprehend client necessities and desires. Second is distinguishing and at the same time evaluating the same time the contenders’ capability to satisfy clients’ expectations. Third perceives key achievement elements of association’s item available. Finally, the fourth step is exchanging these key variables into item and procedure qualities in association with configuration, change, and production. The goal of QFD is to decipher the desires of clients into item and procedure details by consistently allowing the needs be repeated at each level of item change process. 

As per Bunney and Dale (1997, pp. 183–189) for utilizing and applying Quality Management Instruments (quality control devices) and systems, the a few notes must be thought seriously about by every association to attain great comes about, these some of notes are: 

• Identifying phases of change, presenting suitable Qmts for suitable capacity, considering accessible asset are essential elements in AQMT. Distinguishment of the synthesis of proper apparatuses for particular application, alongside satisfactory preparing is crucial for execution of Qmts. 

• To overcome troubles with respect to the status change process, Qmts ought to be used to unravel generally characterized issues. 

• Understanding of devices inside appropriate gathering of individuals identifying with their positions will cause QMT to turn into a piece of day-by-day exercises inside the association. 

• Providing satisfactory preparing to the right individuals at the perfect time, alongside decently characterized Qmts is key for fruitful change 

3.1 Quality of Higher Education:

 

Principle concern in this work is about meaning of nature of advanced education that has turned out to be much more troublesome as opposed to assembling items and administrations. There is no question about the point that quality assumes a critical part in today has advanced education, Owlia and Aspinwall (1997, pp. 527-543). Feigenbaum (1994, pp. 83-4) believes competition between nations the nature of instruction is the primary and essential variable, and this is on the grounds that nature of items and administrations is characterized by the activity, choice making, and considerations of supervisors, architects, laborers, and educators in the quality work. Like other organizations, in today’s business sector, instruction and specifically advanced education has entered to business rivalry, which is because of practical strengths, Seymour (1992). Freeman accepts that this rival is firstly due to the change of the worldwide training business, and is because of the lessening of the legislative supports that empower associations to search for some other fiscal sources, Freeman (1993). Thusly, recognizing what the quality means in advanced education as the first period of value work appears to be fundamental. Notwithstanding, still there is nobody interesting definition about the nature of advanced education, there are many of these clarifications that in some way or another have industry viewpoint that in “imperceptible”

Besides, Cheng and Tam (1997) recommend, “Instruction quality is a somewhat obscure and disputable idea” and Pounder (1999) contends that quality is a “famously questionable term”. Overall, some different masters in the connection of value in advanced education want to redress those definitions originating from industry and utilize the overhauled variant of definition of value in advanced education. Case in point Campell and Rozsnayi (2002, pp. 19–20), have characterized the idea of nature of advanced education in a few routes identified with industry:  Quality as perfection: this definition is thought to be the customary scholastic perspective that holds as its objective to be the best. 

Quality as zero blunders: this is characterized most effectively in mass industry in which item particulars could be made in point of interest, and institutionalized estimations of uniform items can demonstrate adjustment to them. As the results of advanced education, the graduates, are not anticipated that will be indistinguishable, this perspective is not generally thought to be material in advanced education. Quality as wellness for purposes: this methodology obliges that the item or administration has congruity with client needs, prerequisites, or cravings. 

Quality as change: this idea centers solidly on the learners: the better the advanced education foundation, the more it attains the objective of enabling understudies with particular abilities, learning and state of mind that empower them to live and work in the information society. Quality as limit: characterizing an edge for quality intends to set certain standards and criteria. Any organization that achieves these standards and criteria is esteemed to be of value. 

Quality as worth for cash: The thought of responsibility is fundamental to this meaning of quality with responsibility being focused around the requirement for restriction out in the open consumption

Quality as upgrade or change: This idea stresses the quest for nonstop change and is predicated on the idea that accomplishing quality is focal to the scholarly ethos and that it is scholastics themselves who know best what quality is some time or another. Notwithstanding of these distinctive definitions on nature of training, nature of yield and notoriety in scholarly research are well on the way to be esteemed in Heis. Nonetheless, quality frameworks adjusted from business and industry operations need to be reoriented, and re installed for advanced education conditions to turn the center from the administration based to the training based practices, as indicated by Mizikaci (2006). 

Tribus (1994) accepts that the destinations of each school, or college, ought to be to give every understudy, chances to enhance in learning, know how, astuteness, and character. The principal idea empowers understudies to comprehend, and the second one encourages them to do, in like manner the third one empowers understudies to set necessities, lastly the character gives the probability for them to coordinate, to drive forward and to wind up regarded and trusted parts of society.

 

Chapter 4: Limitation:

The fundamental confinement for this venture was about discovering some applicable reports with respect to the quality work of the college school of Borås, since established reports were distributed in Swedish. Truth be told, discovering significant English reports was the primary sympathy toward analysts. On the other hand, an interpreter was delegated to help the scientists in this setting, because of some confinements for her; she could not proceed until the end of the work. Hence, the creators have to be confined to the accessible information and talks with keeping in mind the end goal to demonstrate the officially existing quality framework in this college. In addition, considering time/credit casing of this proposition work, there was an understanding for the number of meetings for this work 

 

References:

 

Oakland, J. S. (2014). Total Quality Management and Operational Excellence: Text with Cases. Routledge. 

Hoang, D. T., Igel, B., & Laosirihongthong, T. (2010). Total quality management (TQM) strategy and organisational characteristics: Evidence from a recent WTO member. Total quality management, 21(9), 931-951. 

Wang, C. H., Chen, K. Y., & Chen, S. C. (2012). Total quality management, market orientation and hotel performance: the moderating effects of external environmental factors.&nbs

Supply Chain Effects of Implementing Blockchain Technology for Logistics

  

Supply Chain Effects of Implementing Blockchain Technology for Logistics

Name 

Institutional Affiliation 

  

Abstract 

The blockchain technology continues to gain recognition in the international logistics industry following the successful adoption of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies as modes of settling transactions. The technology ensures the security of transaction data through the decentralized storage of the transaction details as well as increasing the difficulty of changing the data. Currently, a number of businesses have adopted the blockchain technology in their supply chain management to enhance their operational efficiencies and consistency in meeting their quality demands. The current paper focuses on identifying some of the effects of adopting the blockchain technologies in contemporary logistics activities as well as the suggested applications in the future. 

Keywords: Blockchain, supply chain, logistics, Bitcoin

Introduction

The primary concept in supply chain management is the management of the flow or distribution of information, goods, and services effectively to minimize risks and enhance performance. Managing contemporary supply chains is a highly complicated activity due to the number of payments, information shared, the magnitude of distribution networks, and geographical extent that affects company logistics. As argued by Soosay & Hyland (2015), the rapidly occurring changes in the economy have necessitated various organizations to cooperate more closely to enhance the efficiency of their processes and increase the overall performance of the supply chain. Tsou (2013) observes that the supply chain collaboration offers a number of benefits that include enhanced service levels and cost reductions in addition to efficient and faster response to changes. 

Nonetheless, the success of the collaborations between firms primarily depends on the levels of commitment and engagement by the partners involved in the supply chains (Moreira, Ferreira, & Zimmermann, 2018). Ralston, Richey, & Grawe (2017) point out some of the challenges in realizing successful such as differences in the application of information technologies in the supply chains, contrasting organizational objectives, varying or conflicting financial decisions, and power differences. The increasing numbers of stakeholders involved in the supply chains are partially responsible for such problems (Casey & Wong, 2017). 

Blockchain continues to receive significant amounts of attention by logistics experts following the acknowledgment of the contributions of early cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ethereum in the financial sector. Staples et al. (2017) insist that the blockchain technology has the far-reaching consequences that include changing industries, supply chains, and company cultures among others. The blockchain technology is widely considered a secure method of conducting transactions between multiple entities through digital decentralized ledgers while eliminating the need for mediators (Swan, 2017). The technology is important because the intermediaries could introduce bureaucratic processes that lead to unnecessary disruptions or delays in supply chains. Logistics experts tout blockchain technology as an appropriate solution to trust problems encountered in supply chains in addition to suggesting that companies should adopt the blockchain applications to sustain their competitive advantages (Kshetri, 2018). 

Companies such as Maersk and Walmart have already initiated plans to incorporate the blockchain technology in their operations due to the benefits of the application in supply chain management. Understanding the implications of the blockchain technology in logistics and supply chain management is important despite its application by firms still being in its early stages. According to Kshetri (2018), researchers already acknowledge the potential of blockchain in improving the quality measurement solutions and enhancing tracking and tracing activities. Moreover, firms involved in the logistics business have numerous opportunities with the expansion and uptake of the blockchain technology in their operations (Nowinski & Kozma, 2017). A potential benefit of blockchain is the enhancement of the collaborations and increase in the number of solutions to supply chain partners (Nakasumi, 2017). Thus, the objective of the current paper assesses the impacts of adopting the blockchain technology in supply chains in contemporary companies as well as analyzing the background of the technology. 

How Blockchain Works

Heutger & Kuckelhaus (2017) describe blockchain as a technology that involves a distributed ledger and with the capacity to permanently and securely record any transactions completed between entities. The technology eliminates the need for mediators whose previous responsibilities in traditional supply chain models included verifying, documenting, and coordinating transactions (Swan, 2015). Blockchain achieves this by allowing various parties to share databases without the need for third parties thus changing the supply chains into distributed systems rather than centralized or decentralized systems. As such, the blockchain technology has the effect of freeing data from centralized storage systems and enhancing the sharing of information between business partners (Nakasumi, 2017). As Pilkington (2016) observes, the completed transactions are secured through the application of cryptographic methods and this eliminates the risks of hacking or data losses. The three important features of the blockchain technology include decentralization, verification, and immutability. 

The decentralization results from the operation of the network by members rather than depending on a centralized infrastructure or authority that established trust in the traditional supply chain models. Any transaction added to the digital ledger has to be shared inside the peer-to-peer network in blockchain and all the members retain local copies of the contracts. The requirement for all entities in the network to use public-private-key cryptography prior to sharing transactions with other partners over the network ensures that blockchain is verified. Furthermore, only the firms or individuals who hold the private keys have the ability to initiate the transactions and this helps in eliminating interference in the system by unauthorized persons. Nonetheless, the observed risk of the technology is that the disassociation of the private keys from real-world identities allows the partners to remain anonymous and this creates the risks of abuse (Staples et al., 2017). 

The immutability of the blockchain technology results from the application of consensus algorithm that allows various transactions to be sorted together into new blocks. The created blocks are accessible to the network members who have the authority to assess and confirm the recorded transactions. A block is rejected in situations where the network members cannot agree on its validity following its addition to the chain. The block is confirmed and added to the network if the members reach a consensus on the validity of the recorded transactions. The verification of each block leads to the generation of a cryptographic hash that connects different blocks created earlier. Consequently, the connection and interdependency that exists between the various blocks result in the formation of a chain. The attempts to retroactively change the recorded transactions are impossible due to the need to manually change the local transaction records entered in the members’ devices as well as changing each block’s cryptographic hash throughout the entire chain. 

Blockchain addresses a number of shortcomings associated with centralized architectures in supply chain management due to its distributed nature. For instance, the technology allows all the network members to access similar and verified information in addition to increasing the trust levels among the members without the need of third parties. Moreover, the technology automatically records all transactions between different entities in the network while eliminating the role of mediators. Smith (2018) suggest that such transactions could include various deeds of ownership, carbon credits, and digital money among others. The recording and distribution of all transactions over a number of nodes ensure that the blockchain technology is highly transparent to all members while the elimination of a central authority in managing the blockchain ensures that it is scalable and efficient. The records cannot be erased and this also enhances transparency. Blockchain also helps organizations to complete transactions without relying on traditional banks or exposing themselves to the effects of currency exchange rates. However, the early stages of adoption of blockchain in supply chain management, data security concerns, low acceptance by industry stakeholder, regulatory uncertainty, and limited throughput are some of the challenges that are associated with the technology. 

Background of Blockchain Technology

The successful operations of industries and governments depend on vital transactions such as process coordination, registration, voting, notarization, escrow, and payments. Various trusted third-parties including banks, service providers in particular industries, accounting firms, legal firms, banks, and government agencies had central roles in facilitating such transactions in traditional models. According to Heutger & Kuckelhaus (2017), the idea of a distributed computing has existed for almost three decades following its introduction in the early 1990s. Pilkington (2016) observes that the initial purpose of introducing the concept of the distributed computing aimed at preventing double-spending although issues such as anonymity and lack of compatibility between centralization reduced its early incorporation in supply chains. However, the roots of blockchain can be traced to Satoshi Nakamoto who invented Bitcoin and pioneered the idea of the technology to develop decentralized digital ledgers that could be operated through anonymous consensus in 2008. The introduction of blockchains revolutionized the approaches used in supporting the transactions by eliminating the need for trusted third parties. Instead, the entities involved in a transaction would depend on the blockchains operated on a technology platform. This resulted in the creation of the Bitcoin cryptocurrency that was used as the public account of the transactions completed on the blockchain network. 

Petersen, Hackius, & See (2017) suggest that an increased recognition of the blockchain technology in financial activities occurred during 2015 although the logistics and supply chain community was slower in realizing the importance of blockchain in their processes. The original paper published by Satoshi Nakamoto initially separated block and chain although the two words were joined to form “blockchain” around 2016. The original application of blockchain was in supporting the Bitcoin cryptocurrency although the application of the technology has expanded significantly in other platforms. The concept of blockchain 2.0 was first introduced in 2014 to describe a number of emerging applications based on the technology. An example is a newly developed programming language that supports the creation of sophisticated smart contracts that feature self-paying invoices following the delivery of shipments as well as the automated share certificates that release dividends to shareholders when their profits exceed specified limits. 

The financial sector has undoubtedly been the most significant adopter of blockchain technology. However, the blockchains can be used in representing information or transactions conducted by entities in any society or industry in a similar fashion as the traditional databases. Nonetheless, the blockchains have significant unique properties that distinguish them from the traditional databases. The blockchains are widely categorized as private, consortium, and public blockchains depending on the level of participation in the use and operation of their use (Staples et al., 2017). The private blockchains incorporate strong access control to reduce the influence of the public in the databases. The stability of the blockchains depends on the technical protocols and system’s software’s correctness, confirmation of integrity criteria, application of strong cryptographic measures, and various incentives to increase the participation of members in the system. 

Current Effects of Blockchain Technology on Supply Chains

The blockchain technology has had significant impacts on the financial sector following the introduction of several cryptocurrencies that continue to gain recognition as acceptable alternative payment methods in many regions. Blockchains are currently used widely as distributed accounts for various cryptocurrencies such as Litecoin, Bitcoin, and Ethereum among others. Maintaining track of financial records is a critical activity in logistics due to the importance of such data in planning processes and assessment of an organization’s performance (Dobrovnik, Herold, Furst, & Kummer, 2018). The stability, reliability, and security of the Bitcoin cryptocurrency demonstrate the potential of the blockchain technology in overcoming the shortcomings of traditional systems. For instance, most of the centralized infrastructures associated with the traditional supply chain management systems have been exposed to hacking and other malpractices from the central authorities. However, many firms involved in the logistics and supply chain management businesses show considerable levels of reluctance in incorporating the technology in their critical operations due to fears of risks. 

Trust is an integral concept in global supply chain management as various entities build their relationships with their foreign partners based on this trait (Moreira, Ferreira, & Zimmermann, 2018). In traditional supply chain models, third-party mediators such as lawyers and various government agencies used signed contracts to help in ensuring organizations delivered the services and goods. However, the introduction of the blockchain technologies has resulted in reduced reliance on the third parties in completing the international transactions as the contemporary organizations use established networks to maintain the trust levels. The terms of exchange during the international transactions are also important due to the legal implications of failing to adhere to agreed conditions as well as the influence of foreign governments in business activities. One of the current effects of the blockchain technologies in supply chains is determining the nature of the exchanges and their working through established network protocols. The technology also ensures that the members of the shared networks understand the possibilities and limitations of their international transactions. 

Firms in the logistics industry understand the importance of committing to binding agreements when doing business with international partners. Breaching the contracts can have several adverse consequences on companies and their suppliers, and these include incurred financial losses as well as lawsuits and damaged reputations. The adoption of the blockchain technologies allows organizations and their suppliers to form binding contracts on established blockchain networks through applications such as smart contracts. The smart contracts allow the partners to recall the agreement terms as shared in the networks(Moreira, Ferreira, & Zimmermann, 2018). Nonetheless, the new technology does not entirely eliminate the role of third parties in business contracts although it changes how such agreements are recorded. Furthermore, the consensus on the accuracy of the data stored in the networks is also important during the reconciliation of the records. 

The blockchain technologies have revolutionized how organizations in the global supply chains achieve agreement on the transacted information stored in their networks. For example, meeting specified conditions grows the block chains and ensures that these remain in the official records for future reference. The stability of the blockchain technologies increases when the number of members increases due to the triggering of the network effect. Thus, the increased implementation of the blockchain technologies by companies in the logistics and supply chain management is important in ensuring that the number of members exceeds the critical levels to enhance the acceptance of the technology. Nonetheless, the initial requirements associated with blockchain continue to inhibit the adoption of technology. 

Application of the Blockchain Technologies in Contemporary Businesses

The ability of entities to engage in the global transfer of funds through blockchains without relying on traditional banking systems has increased the convenience for organizations that have globalized supply chains. For instance, Tomcar – an Australian automaker – has adopted Bitcoin as its primary currency for paying its global suppliers and this helps in ensuring that the company does not incur additional costs and easing its international transactions. The company uses the CoinJar payment gateway in receiving payments to ensure that its overseas customers would not have concerns over high fees charged on credit cards as well as the changes in exchange rates. The move is significant because it reduces the transaction fees from 5% to about 0.03% when the international customers used the cryptocurrency instead of credit cards (Marr, 2018). Moreover, opting to use the stable and secure cryptocurrencies helps in reducing the costs of acquiring vehicle parts to Tomcar from international the international suppliers and this reduces the costs Tomcar vehicles thus increasing the company’s sales volumes. Other notable companies that use cryptocurrencies in facilitating international payments include Baidu and Bitfash. 

Companies in the food business require solid records that would assist them in tracing various ingredients or products from their sources. Moreover, the increased customer awareness of food production practices and the demand for ethically sourced ingredients has led to a shift in food production practices. Consequently, a number of companies have adopted the use of the blockchain technologies in their supply chains to help in enhancing accountability and ensuring consistency in quality. For example, Walmart has adopted blockchain as a method of keeping track of the quality of various meat products such as beef and pork acquired from its suppliers in China. The company uses the blockchain technology in ensuring that it maintains all the processing, storage, and sell-by-dates of all pieces of meat used by Walmart. The transparency that results from using blockchain technologies helps in ensuring that the customers understand that they are dealing with firms that support sustainable production, environmental stewardship, avoid genetically modified organisms, and oppose animal brutality. The technology also helps in determining the accurate sources of food contaminations and identifying the appropriate remedial measures. Other notable companies that use the blockchain technologies for the same purpose include Dole, Tyson, Nestle, and Unilever among others. 

Tracking and maintaining data is also critical to companies in the mining sector due to the high prices of quality minerals in the international markets. Various organizations adopt different strategies to eliminate the risks of purchasing fake or forged prized minerals such as diamonds and gold from their suppliers. The blockchain technology has been cited by stakeholders in mining as a method of overcoming such malpractices and ensuring that the customers receive quality products. For example, BHP Billiton – a leading mining company – has adopted the blockchain technology in its operations to enhance its ability to collect and store data from its international suppliers in all stages of the mining process. Moreover, the BHP Billiton considers the blockchain technologies as critical in enhancing the company’s interactions with global partners. 

De Beers, a large South African Diamond producing company, also applies the technology in tracking the mined diamond stones from their points of origin to the point where the polished products are sold to its customers. The use of the blockchain technology, in this case, helps in ensuring that De Beers avoids dealing in diamonds sourced from conflict zones (commonly referred to as “blood” or “conflict diamonds”) while ensuring that its clients receive genuine products. Another application of the blockchain technology in the logistics industry is the monitoring of specific vehicles in an organization’s fleet. The logistics companies can use the technology in verifying the data on each vehicle’s previous performance as well as their maintenance histories. 

The adoption of the blockchain technologies in supply chains has also created investment opportunities to a number of entrepreneurs and startup supply chain businesses. For example, Cloud Logistics has invested in expanding the adoption of blockchain by offering various supply chain solutions based on the technology to reduce costs and enhance efficiencies to organizations in the supply chain industry. Experts in the logistics business suggest that the number of vendors offering the supply chain solutions based on the blockchain technologies will increase in the future following the demand for novel solutions to the logistics challenges encountered by multinational companies. Additionally, established freighters such as Maersk have already adopted the blockchain technologies to assist them in effectively tracking the movement of containers and goods through secure and authenticated data. Maersk acknowledges that using traditional methods of recording and storing important information based on application programming interfaces and electronic data interchanges are unreliable due to the risks of their manipulations by unscrupulous entities. 

Expected Future Effects of Blockchain Technology

Smart Contracts 

The blockchain technology has the advantage of simplifying the storage of transaction data of exchanged assets as well as the execution of the stored transactions in an organization’s digital ledger using various computer programs. Such ledgers are referred to as “smart contracts” although such data may be inapplicable in monitoring or executing legal contracts (Asharaf & Adash, 2017). Smart contracts can be described as self-executing agreements written in codes and binding between sellers and buyers on the contract terms that are distributed and contained in a decentralized blockchain network (Gerard, 2017). The smart contracts allow the completion of trusted agreements and transactions to be conducted by anonymous and disparate parties while eliminating the need for external enforcement mechanisms, legal systems, or central authorities. The Bitcoin blockchain technology facilitates the formation of smart contracts using simplified computer languages while various competing technologies that include Litecoin and Ethereum use the “Turing complete” computer language (Iyer & Dannen, 2018). 

Despite the identified advantages of the blockchain technology in contemporary supply chain management, the adoption of smart contracts as substitutes to traditional legal contracts remains underexploited. Stakeholders continue to debate on the practicality of adopting the smart contracts created using blockchain as alternatives to legal contracts. Additionally, the diversity of the computer languages used in creating the smart contracts raises problems to organizations due to the computational complexities involved in the blockchain technologies. The low uptake of the blockchain technologies by organizations in the logistics business also creates challenges in using the smart contracts in business agreements. Nonetheless, industry players observe that smart contracts and other blockchain technologies have the potential of revolutionizing logistics operations in the future. 

Financial Services

The adoption of the Bitcoin cryptocurrency as an alternative form of payment to traditional methods remains in its early stages. However, financial experts suggest that the digital currencies formed using the blockchain technologies will have far-reaching effects and exerting significant changes in industry practices. The blockchain technology facilitates the secure transfer of digital currencies between entities without such transfers being subjected to recording or processing by payment services or banks. Consequently, the experts suggest that the blockchain technologies have the ability to create and supporting “programmable money” that comprises of various currencies with policies that are automatically enforced (Staples et al., 2017). Moreover, firms involved in logistics and supply chain management can use the digital currencies and blockchain technologies in making or receiving international payments from suppliers in other countries. One of the projected advantages of using Bitcoin and other digital currencies in international payment is that it protects logistics companies from the problems associated with currency fluctuations due to inflation, natural disasters, or political interferences. The logistics and supply chain management industry can also use the blockchain technologies in registering, clearing, and settling securities. 

Anonymity is a key feature in the blockchain technology because the real-world identities of individuals or organizations involved in various transactions are not mandatory following the use of cryptographic keys. For instance, the blockchain technology allows agents transacting Bitcoins to identify themselves pseudonymously and this raises the risks of financial malpractices and other unethical practices. As such, the use of blockchain technologies in receiving or making payments with foreign-based partners faces significant challenges due to international regulations such as the Counter-Terrorism Financing and Anti-Money Laundering policies. Another significant problem that continues to inhibit the adoption of the blockchain technologies in logistics and supply chains is the issue of loss in confidentiality and privacy during the integration of personal data in various blockchain-based systems to conform to the CTF/AML requirements. 

Summary and Conclusions

The objective of the current study was identifying the effects of adopting the blockchain technology in logistics, and the paper reviews some of the current and future effects of blockchain on supply chains. The blockchain technology is an important emergent technology that has the capacity to enhance operational efficiencies and lower transaction costs to firms in the logistics business during supply management activities. However, Heutger & Kuckelhaus (2017) suggest that the idea of distributed computing has been in existence for more than two decades although the recognition of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies based on blockchain increased significantly around 2015. The current study reveals that the blockchain technology has a number of potential benefits in supply chain management and logistics operations. One of the advantages of adopting the technology is that it eliminates the role of third parties in mediating transactions thus overcoming the problems associated with trust issues between partners while hastening the completion of business agreements. Supply chain management primarily focuses on managing the flow of goods and services effectively to eliminate the risks of losses. However, the numbers of payments, the quantity of shared information, and the extent of distribution networks have made logistics a complicated operation in contemporary organizations. Consequently, industry players point out the need for the introduction of innovative solutions to address some of the challenges in modern supply chains. The blockchain technology is widely regarded as one of the future technologies that have the potential of changing supply chain management activities following the introduction of cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ethereum (Staples et al., 2017). 

Swan (2017) argues that the blockchain technology offers a safe platform for conducting transactions with multiple entities via digital decentralized ledgers while concurrently removing the roles of third-party mediators. This is important in contemporary organizations due to the need to prevent unnecessary disruptions and delays in supply chains that can be caused by the bureaucratic processes associated with traditional methods of conducting transactions. Moreover, Kshetri (2018) observes that experts in the logistics industry widely consider the blockchain technology as the most preferable solution in addressing trust issues between partners. Decentralization and immutability are important features of the blockchain technology because they help in ensuring the validity of the completed transactions while increasing accessibility to network members. Another important benefit of adopting the blockchain technology in logistics is that it helps in simplifying the storage of transaction data of exchanged goods. Asharaf & Adash (2017) propose that organizations in the logistics business should consider adopting the “smart contracts” applications to automate the completion of business agreements. Cryptocurrencies based on the blockchain technology have also proven stable and secure since Bitcoin was first used as a mode of payment in 2009. The stability is important in logistics because it helps in protecting organizations in the logistics business from problems associated with issues such as currency fluctuations, exchange rates, and inflation among others. 

However, the adoption of the blockchain technologies in supply chain management remains low due to the number of challenges that must be addressed before blockchain receives widespread approval from logistics companies. For example, the transactions conducted through the blockchain technology are anonymous in nature and this prevents authorities from reviewing the activities of some of the users to identify criminals and fraudsters. Bitcoin’s anonymity has been accused of facilitating illegal activities on the dark web and this raises serious concerns among the industry players in the logistics business. Nonetheless, gaining acceptance in the logistics industry is critical because it determines the effectiveness of blockchain technology in changing operations and business practices.

  

References

Asharaf, S., & Adarsh, S. (2017). Decentralized computing using blockchain technologies and smart contracts: Emerging research and opportunities. Hershey, PENN: IGI Global. 

Casey, M. J., & Wong, P. (2017). Global supply chains are about to get better, thanks to Blockchain. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2017/03/global-supply-chains-are-about-to-get-better-thanks-to-blockchain

Dobrovnik, M., Herold, D., Fürst, E., & Kummer, S. (2018). Blockchain for and in Logistics: What to Adopt and Where to Start. Logistics, 2(3), 1-14.

Gerard, D. (2017). Attack of the 50 foot blockchain: Bitcoin, blockchain, Ethereum & smart contracts. David Gerard.

Heutger, M., & Kuckelhaus, M. (2017). Blockchain trend report. Retrieved from https://www.logistics.dhl/content/dam/dhl/global/core/documents/pdf/glo-core-blockchain-trend-report.pdf

Iyer, K., & Dannen, C. (2018). Building games with Ethereum smart contracts: Intermediate projects for solidity developers. Berkeley, CA: Apress. 

Kshetri, N. (2018). 1 blockchain’s role in meeting key supply chain management objectives. International Journal of Information Management, 39, 80-89. 

Marr, B. (2018). How the blockchain will transform the supply chain and logistics industry. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2018/03/23/how-blockchain-will-transform-the-supply-chain-and-logistics-industry/#44447e915fec

Moreira, A. C., Ferreira, L. M. D. F., & Zimmermann, R. A. (2018). Innovation and supply chain management: Relationship, collaboration and strategies. Cham: Sp

UNIT8 NP DUE 08/26/2019

UNIT8 DISC1 (ALSO SEE DISCUSSION 2 BELOW) Using a Logic Model as a Strategic Planning Tool

In your readings for this week, Watson and Hoefer (2014) (PROVIDED BELOW)provide a general overview of using logic models to define a problem and identify inputs, activities, outputs, and outcomes. 

In your initial post, discuss how application of a logic model would be different for a small nonprofit organization, a large federal agency, or the development of a policy for a specific human service program. How would the leader for each of these organizations engage the participants in the process? Cite examples from the reading.

READING: WATSON AND HOEFER 2014 FROM TEXT BOOK

Logic Models and Program Evaluation

INTRODUCTION

Nonprofit administrators both develop and evaluate programs. A logic model is useful for both, even though development happens before the program begins and evaluation happens after it has been in operation. A good evaluation, however, is planned at the same time that the program is designed so that necessary data is collected along the way, rather than annually or after the program finishes. This chapter first describes the process of logic modeling using an example of the logic model. Then, it discusses how to use the logic model to plan an evaluation.

LOGIC MODELS

The idea of logic models as an adjunct to program evaluation extends at least as far back as 2000 when the Kellogg Foundation published a guide to developing logic models for program design and evaluation. According to Frechtling (2007), a logic model is “a tool that describes the theory of change underlying an intervention, product or policy” (p. 1). While one can find many variations on how a logic model should be constructed, it is a versatile tool that is used to design programs, assist in their implementation, and guide their evaluation. This chapter describes one basic approach to logic modeling for program evaluation and links the planning and evaluation aspects of human service administration.

You should understand that not all programs have been designed with the aid of a logic model, although that is becoming less common every year. Federal grants, for example, often require applicants to submit a logic model, and their use throughout the human services sector is growing through academic education and in-service training. If there is no logic model for a program you are working with, it is possible to create one after a program has been implemented. You can thus bring the power of the tool to bear when changing a program or creating an evaluation plan.

Logic model terminology uses system theory terminology. Because logic models are said to describe the program’s “theory of change,” it is possible to believe that this refers to something such as social learning theory, cognitive-behavioral theory, or any one of a number of psychological or sociological theories. In general, though, logic models have a much less grand view of theory. We begin with the assumption that any human services program is created to solve a problem. The problem should be clearly stated in a way that does not predetermine how the problem will be solved. The utility of a logic model is in showing how the resources used (inputs) are changed into a program (activities) with closely linked products (outputs) that then lead to changes in clients in the short, medium, and long terms. The net effect of these client changes is that the original problem is solved or at least made better for the clients in the program. An example of a logic model is shown as Figure 7.1.

The problem being addressed by the example program is, “School-aged youth have anger management problems leading to verbal and physical fights at school and home.” This problem statement is specific about who has a problem (school-aged youth), what the problem is (anger management problems leading to verbal and physical fights), and where it is a problem (school and home). It also does not prejudge what the solution is, allowing for many possible programs to address the problem. An example problem statement that is not as good because it states the problem in a way that allows only one solution is, “There is a lack of anger management classes in schools for school-aged youth.”

Another way to make the problem statement good is to phrase the statement in such a way that almost anyone can agree that it is actually a problem. The example problem statement might make this point more clearly by saying, “There are too many verbal and physical fights at school and home among school-aged youth.” Phrased this way, there would be little doubt that this is a problem, even though the statement is not specific about the number of such fights or the cause of the fights. If the program personnel want to focus on anger management problems, this way of stating the problem might lead to a host of other issues being addressed instead that might be leading to fights—such as overcrowding in the halls, gang membership, conflict over curfews at home, or anything else that might conceivably cause youth to fight at school or home. Be prepared to revisit your first effort at the problem statement and seek input from interested stakeholders to be sure that you are tackling what is really considered the reason for the program. The problem statement is vital to the rest of the logic model and evaluation so take the time to make several drafts to get full agreement.

After the problem statement, the logic model has six columns. Arrows connect what is written in one column to something else in the next column to the right or even within the same column. These arrows are the “logic” of the program. If the column to the left is achieved, then we believe that the element at the end of the arrow will be achieved. Each arrow can be considered to show a hypothesis that the two elements are linked. (The example presented here is intentionally not “perfect” so that you can see some of the nuances and challenges of using this tool.)

The first column is labeled “Inputs.” In this column, you write the major resources that will be needed or used in the program. Generically, these tend to be funds, staff, and space, but can include other elements such as type of funds, educational level of the staff, and location of the space (on a bus line, for example), if they apply to your program. The resource of “staff,” for example, might mean MSW-level licensed counselors. In the end, if only staff members with bachelor degrees in psychology are hired, this would indicate that the “staff” input was inadequate.

The second column is “Activities.” In this area, you write what the staff members of the program will be doing—what behaviors you would see them engage in if you sat and watched them. Here, as elsewhere in the logic model, there are decisions about the level of detail to include. It would be too detailed, for example, to have the following bullet points for the case management activity:

•    Answer phone calls about clients

•    Make phone calls about clients

•    Learn about other agencies’ services

•    Write out referral forms for clients to other agencies

This is what you would see, literally, but the phrase “case management” is probably enough. Somewhere in program documents, there should be a more detailed description of the duties of a case manager so that this level of detail is not necessary on the logic model, which is, after all, a graphical depiction of the program’s theory of change, not a daily to-do list.

The other danger is being too general. In this case, a phrase such as “provide social work services” wouldn’t be enough to help the viewer know what the employee is doing as there are so many activities involved in social work services. Getting the correct level of specificity is important in helping develop your evaluation plan here and throughout the logic model.

As you can see from the arrows leading from the inputs to the activities, the program theory indicates that, given the proper funds, staff, and space, the activities of case management and individual counseling will occur. This may or may not happen, however, which is why a process evaluation is needed and will be discussed later in this chapter.

The third column lists “Outputs.” An output is a measurable result of an activity. In this example, the activity of “case management” results in client youth being referred to other agencies for services. The output of the activity “individual counseling” is counseling sessions. It is important to note that outputs are not changes in clients—outputs are the results of agency activities that may or may not then result in changes to clients. The connection between agency activity and outputs is perhaps the most difficult part of putting together a logic model because many people mistakenly assume that if a service is given and documented, then client changes are automatic. This is simply not true.

The next three columns are collectively known as “Outcomes.” An outcome is a change in the client and should be written in a way that is a change in knowledge, attitude, belief, status, or behavior. Outcomes are why programs are developed and run—to change clients’ lives. Outcomes can be developed at any level of intervention—individual, couple or family, group, organization, or community of any size. This example uses a program designed to make a change at an individual youth level, but could also have changes at the school or district level if desired.

Outcomes are usually written to show a time dimension with short-, medium-, and long-term outcomes. The long-term outcome is the opposite of the problem stated at the top of the logic model and thus ties the entire intervention back to its purpose—to solve a particular problem. The division of outcomes into three distinct time periods is obviously a helpful fiction, not a tight description of reality. Still, some outcomes are expected to come sooner than others. These short-term outcomes are usually considered the direct result of outputs being developed. On the example logic model, the arrows indicate that referrals and individual counseling are both supposed to result in client youth better recognizing the role that anger plays in their life. After that is achieved, the program theory hypothesizes that clients will use skills at a beginning level to handle their anger. This is a case where one short-term outcome (change in self-knowledge) leads the way for a change in behavior (using skills).

OUTCOMES AND GOALS AND OBJECTIVES: WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?

Logic models use the term outcome, but many people use the terms goals and objectives to talk about what a program is trying to achieve. In the previous chapter, you were told that an outcome objective answers the question, “What difference did it make in the lives of the people served?” In this chapter, you are told that an outcome is a “change in the client.” What’s the difference?

In reality, there is not much difference. Goals and objectives are one way of talking about the purpose of a program. This terminology is older than the logic model terminology and more widespread. But it can be confusing, too, because an objective at one level of an organization may be considered a goal at another level or at a different time.

Outcomes are easier to fit into the logic model approach to showing program theory by relating to resources, activities, and outputs. Systems theory terminology is more widespread than before and avoids some of the conceptual pitfalls of goals and objectives thinking.

We present both sets of terms so that you can be comfortable in all settings. But you should realize that both approaches are ultimately talking about the same thing: the ability of an organization to make people’s lives better.

The element “beginning level use of skills to handle anger” has two arrows leading to medium-term outcomes. The first arrow leads to “higher level use of skills to handle anger.” In this theory of change, at this point, there is still anger, but the youth recognize what is occurring and take measures to handle it in a skillful way that does not lead to negative consequences. The second arrow from “beginning level use of skills to handle anger” indicates that the program designers believe that the skills youth learn will assist them to reframe situations they are in so that they feel angry less frequently. This is a separate behavior than applying skills to handle anger, so it receives its own arrow and box.

The final column represents the long-term outcomes. Often, there is only one element shown in this column, one indicating the opposite of the problem. In this logic model, since the problem is seen to occur both at school and at home, each is looked at separately. A youth may reduce fights at home but not at school, or vice versa, so it is important to leave open the possibility of only partial success.

This example logic model shows a relatively simple program theory, with two separate tracks for intervention but with overlapping outcomes expected from the two intervention methods. It indicates how one element can lead to more than one “next step” and how different elements can lead to the same outcome. Finally, while it is not necessarily obvious just yet, this example shows some weak points in the program’s logic that will emerge when we use it as a guide to evaluating the program.

PROGRAM EVALUATION

As you can see from this discussion, we have used a logic model to represent what we believe will happen when the proper inputs are applied to the correct client population. In the end, if all goes well, clients will no longer have the problem the program addresses, or at least the degree or extent of the problem will be less.

Evaluation is a way to determine the worth or value of a program (Rossi, Lipsey, & Freeman, 2003). There are two primary types of evaluation: process and outcome. The first, process evaluation, examines the way a program runs. In essence, a process evaluation examines the first three columns of a logic model to determine whether required inputs were available, the extent to which activities were conducted, and the degree of output accomplishment. Another aspect of a process evaluation, called fidelity assessment, examines whether the program being evaluated was conducted in accord with the way the program was supposed to be conducted. If all components of a program are completed, fidelity is said to be high. Particularly with evidence-based and manualized programs, if changes are made to the program model during implementation, the program’s effectiveness is likely to be diminished.

The value of the logic model for evaluation is that most of the conceptual information needed to design the evaluation of a program is in the logic model. The required inputs are listed, and the evaluator can check to determine which resources actually came into the program. Activities are similarly delineated, and an evaluator can usually find a way to count the number of activities that the program completed. Similarly, the logic model describes what outputs are expected, and the evaluator merely has to determine how to count the number of completed outputs that result from the program activities.

Looking at the example logic model shows us that we want to have in our evaluation plan at least one way to measure whether funding, staff, and space (the inputs) are adequate; how much case management occurred and individual counseling was conducted (the activities); and the extent to which referrals were made (and followed up on) and the number of individual counseling sessions that happened (the outputs). This information should be in program documents to compare what was planned for with what was actually provided. Having a logic model from the beginning allows the evaluator to ensure that proper data are being collected from the program’s start, rather than scrambling later to answer some of these basic questions.

As noted earlier, this is not a perfect logic model. The question in the process evaluation at this stage might be to determine how to actually measure “case management.” The output is supposed to be “referrals to other agencies,” but there is much else that could be considered beneficial from a case management approach. This element may need careful delineation and discussion with stakeholders to ascertain exactly what is important about case management that should be measured.

The second primary type of evaluation examines program outcomes. Called an outcome evaluation, it focuses on the right half of the logic model, where the designated short-, medium-, and long-term outcomes are listed. The evaluator chooses which outcomes to assess from among the various outcomes in the logic model. Decisions need to be made about how to measure the outcomes, but the logic model provides a quick list of what to measure. In the example logic model, the short-term outcome “better recognition of the role anger plays in their lives” must be measured and could be accomplished using a set of questions asked at intake into the program and after some time has passed after receiving services. One standardized anger management instrument is called the “Anger Management Scale” (Stith & Hamby, 2002). A standardized instrument, if it is appropriate for the clients and program, is a good choice because you can find norms, or expected responses, to the items on the instrument. It is helpful to you, as the evaluator, to know what “average” responses are so you can compare your clients’ responses to the norms. Sometimes, however, it can be difficult to find a standardized instrument that is fully appropriate and relevant to your program.

Another way of measuring is to use an instrument you make up yourself. This has the advantage of simplicity and of being directly connected to your evaluation. In this case, for example, you could approach this outcome in at least two ways. First, you could request a statement from the case worker or counselor indicating that the client has “recognized the role that anger plays” in his or her life, without going into any detail. A second approach would be to have the client write a statement about the role anger plays in his or her life. Neither of these measurements will have a lot of practical utility. Going through the logic model in this way actually shows that this link in program logic is difficult to measure and may not be totally necessary.

WHAT IS AN UNANTICIPATED OUTCOME?

Outcome evaluations also sometimes include a search for unanticipated outcomes. An unanticipated outcome is a change in clients or the environment that occurs because of the program, intervention, or policy, but that was not thought would result and so is not included in the logic model.

While it may seem startling to have an example in a text that shows a less-than-perfect approach, it is included here to show that using a logic model is very useful in showing weak spots in the program logic. This link to “better recognition” is not a fatal problem, and may indeed be an important cognitive change for the client. The issue for evaluation is how to measure it, and whether it really needs to be measured at all.

Of more importance is the next link, which leads to “learn skills to handle anger.” The evaluation must ensure that clients understand skills to help them handle anger and so document these skills. It is not enough to indicate that skills were taught, as in a group or individual session. Teaching a class is an activity and so would be documented in the process evaluation portion of the overall evaluation, but being in a class does not guarantee a change in the client. In this evaluation, we would like to have a measure of skill that can show improvement in the ability to perform the anger management skill. This attribute of the measure is important because we expect the clients to get better in their use over time and include more skillful use of the techniques as a medium-term outcome in the logic model.

The other medium-term outcome expected is that clients will be able to reframe situations so that they actually get angry less frequently. The program logic shows this outcome occurring as a result of both beginning and higher level use of skills. Because this element is broken out from the use of skills to “handle anger,” it will need a separate measure. As an evaluator, you can hope that an established, normed instrument is available, or that this is a skill that is measured by a separate item on a longer scale. If not, you will need to find a way to pull this information from staff members’ reports or client self-assessments.

The final links in the logic model connect the medium-term outcomes to the long-term outcomes of fewer fights at school and fewer fights at home. Because youth having too many fights was identified as the problem this program is addressing, we want to know to what degree fights decreased. The measure here could be client self-reports, school records, or reports from people living in the home.

Implicit in the discussion of the use of this logic model for evaluation purposes is that measurements at the end will be compared to an earlier measure of the same outcome. This is called a single group pretest-posttest evaluation (or research) design. It is not considered a strong design due to the ability of other forces (threats to internal validity) to affect the results. The design could be stronger if a comparison group of similar youth (perhaps at a different school) were chosen and tracked with the same measures. The design could be much stronger if youth at the same school were randomly assigned to either a group that received the program or a different group that did not receive the program. It is beyond the scope of this book to cover in detail all the intricacies of measurement and evaluation design, but we hope this brief overview whets your appetite to learning more.

Measurement of outcomes, while alluded to earlier, is an important part of any evaluation effort. If measures are not appropriate or have low validity and reliability, the value of the evaluation will be seriously compromised. It is suggested that anyone designing an evaluation look at a book on research methods such as Rubin and Babbie (2012), and also have access to books about measures, such as Fischer and Corcoran (2007). (The cost of a new book on research methods may be pretty high, but used editions contain much the same information and can be found for much lower prices.)

SUMMARY

Using an example, this chapter has covered the components of a logic model and how to develop one. It also demonstrates how to use a logic model to design an evaluation plan, including how it raises issues of comprehending program logic, measurement, and evaluation design.

UNIT8DISC2 Overcoming Resistance

In the article by Weber (2015), there is a statement about the importance of engaging those who will be impacted by change in the process of implementing change. The article further relates that initial efforts to foster change in the organization’s strategic planning process were unsuccessful in part because of lack of engagement. Resistance to change and lack of trust are common experiences when an organization or community engages in change efforts. 

In your initial post, discuss the principles for dealing with opposition or resistance in change efforts for the Riverbend City Strategic Planning Committee(INSERTED BELOW), as described in the media piece in the Studies for this unit. Is resistance a normal part of the process? Can it be used in the effort to promote change? How? Discuss the resistance presented by one of the members of the Riverbend City Strategic Planning Committee and critique the response or method of addressing the resistance that was used by the group leader.

RIVERBEND CITY TRANSCRIPT Introduction

In this scenario, you will resume your role as a case worker at the Riverbend City Boys’ and Girls’ Club.

The club is partnering with a number of other local organizations for the Northside Youth Rising Initiative, aimed at preventing youth violence and keeping kids in school in Riverbend City’s underprivileged communities. To kick off the initiative and raise funds for it, the associated organizations are planning the Northside Blues Blowout, a large concert. You have been tasked to be the Boys’ and Girls’ Club’s point person on the Northside Blowout planning.

The director of the Boys’ and Girls’ Club, Jayme Young, has convened a meeting with leaders from some of the partner organizations to talk about logistics for the Northside Blues Blowout. Meeting Emile Solane Riverbend Services Consortium Rep

OK, before I start being negative, I do want to make clear: I’m very excited about the Initiative in general and the Northside Blues Blowout in particular. Really! And so is everyone I’ve talked to at the Riverbend Services Consortium!

That said, I’m really nervous about some of our nuts and bolts as we approach the Blowout. As a Human Services nonprofit, we were really excited by the idea of the initiative, and I pushed hard for RSC to get involved. My staff was enthusiastic, my board much less so. But they came along. This was before we’d all made the decision to kick things off with the Blowout. Now I find myself in choppy water. I’m empowered by the RSC board to spend the organization’s money for Northside Youth Rising Initiative program activities. But that’s it. My board really, really doesn’t like the idea of our funds being spent on a concert, even when I explain to them again and again that the concert is itself a fundraiser, and this is a case of investing money to make money. 

Since all of this is outside of the budget we’d already approved for the year, every expenditure that RSC makes for this is going to have to be approved by our board, and they’re all convinced that I’m asking them to give me a pile of RSC’s money so that I can light it on fire. One of our board members left me a really angry voicemail last night, asking me how she’s supposed to be asking donors for contributions when those contributions are just going to be turned around to pay for music. I know, I know. She’s old-fashioned, but she’s been a great friend to RSC and she’s donated and solicited a lot of money for us. I’m not sure where this leaves me to be honest. I’m trying to figure it out. At the very least, as we work out the budget for the Blowout and figure out how much everyone’s organization needs to kick in, I’m going to need a hell of an airtight case for every line item I take back to them. Father Junot Rivera St. Francis Borgia Catholic Church

I also have some qualms about the Blues Blowout. I don’t have a nonprofit board of directors to answer to, but I do have a parish with a healthy mix of very progressive, forward-thinking people and some people who, though wonderful, are not as accepting of new and different things. And I have to respect the views of everyone in my parish.

Everyone at St. Francis Borgia loves the idea of our community getting involved with the Northside Youth Rising Initiative. Everyone. People ask me about it after mass every single week, and I always enjoy talking to them about it. But the Blowout has some of my parishioners very concerned. There’s a very strong Legion of Decency in the parish, and its members don’t want parish funds going to a concert—even one in the service of good works— with performers they consider immoral. This isn’t a concern that I personally have; but like I said, I have to respect the views of my parishioners.

They’ve asked me to ask if a member of the parish can sit on the subcommittee that chooses the acts for the Blowout; they’ve also asked if I can arrange for them to have veto power. I know we haven’t even started talking about how we’re going to choose our acts, and I know that individual veto power probably isn’t a reasonable request. But I wanted to put it out there that these are conditions I need to work within as we move forward. Quincy Reeves Franzen InterTech

Franzen is excited to be partnering with all of these great, great organizations for this important initiative. We’re thrilled!

Now, I’m afraid there’ll be a little bit of a delicate dance when it comes to our participation in the Blues Blowout. I know that you all think it’s important that we kick this thing off in style, and you’re all convinced that this’ll be a big fundraiser. I hate to be a broken record, but I have to say that I’m just not convinced. This isn’t my first time at the rodeo, I’ve just been involved in way too many fundraising galas and what have you where everyone thought they were going to raise a fortune but instead just wound up breaking even. It’s just such an easy trap to fall into! Everyone says no, it’s not going to happen this time, we’ve learned all the lessons, and then BAM! You’re giving tickets away because they didn’t sell and you just hope people buy enough drinks to cover the costs of putting the thing on.

Now, I know I’ve already lost the argument on having the Blowout. And that’s OK. But I’d like to explore the possibility of having Franzen’s contribution to the Blowout being just of the in-kind nature. We can have staff work the event, we can put our marketing department at the disposal of the committee to help publicize it, stuff like that. But we’re having a very lean year, and what funds we do have available, well, I’d like to keep them earmarked for the Initiative’s actual program activities. Look at it this way: if I’m right and the Blowout doesn’t make any money, this leaves some operating cash from Franzen InterTech on the table for the Initiative to use. Annie Piper Crandall Manufacturing

I understand the logistical difficulties everyone is worried about, and I hope we can figure out ways through all of them. I think we will! We’d better, because I have to tell you, the Northside Youth Rising Initiative is a big, big deal, and it can’t happen without the Blues Blowout, and so we’d darned well better figure all of this out.

Crandall’s had a plant on the north side of Riverbend City for a long, long time, and we’ve got deep roots in that part of town, a lot of those people work in our factory. And it just breaks my heart, seeing the troubles that people have. I know that Hispanics really value family, and they just don’t do well without a good family structure. But you get these deadbeat dads, these absentee fathers, and it just cripples a whole generation. We see that in our plants, let me tell you. Thirty years ago, Hispanics living on the north side were some of our best employees. Now we have all these problems. We’ve got to get the Youth Rising Initiative going to help them out, and if you ask me we need to change the program a little bit so that we’re doing more about these absent fathers.

Sorry, I get carried away. Anyway, if other partner orgs are having trouble with finances for the Blues Blowout, Crandall can probably adjust our contribution. Hector Rodriguez Director of Outreach, Riverbend City Schools

Hate to say it, but if we’re talking about the nuts and bolts of putting on the Blues Blowout, I’m another person bringing some complications to the table. The school district is ecstatic about the initiative overall— I mean, how could we not be? And I think the Blues Blowout sounds like a great event both to raise the profile of the initiative and to let the community have some fun. I’m looking forward to being there and rocking out.

But here’s the bad news: the district operates under some pretty broad ethical guidelines that got put into place after some stuff that happened in the 90s. And those guidelines weren’t really worded as well as they could be, but they’re still binding. Long story short, district funds can’t be used to procure food or drink for outside events. I know, I know. We can negotiate for food donations or gifts in kind by vendors that the district already has a relationship with, so that might be a way to deal with this. Leighann Eliason Hennsey County Juvenile Justice System

I know one way we can save a little bit of money on the Blues Blowout! My little brother has a band, and I swear, they’re really good. You’d be amazed! I know I am. They play a couple of times a month at the Bunker downtown, also Whiskey Lane out in Hoskins. They do a bunch of great classic rock songs, some of their own material, too. They always drive the crowds nuts, get people dancing like crazy. I think they’d be great for the Blowout! They’re called Spoilsport.

We haven’t

Discussion post 1

A Pirandellian Prison

Please go to the following weblink:

Zimbardo, P. G., Haney, C., Banks, C., & Jaffe, D. (1973, April 8). A Pirandellian prison: The mind is a formidable jailer.  New York Times Magazine, pp. 38-60.  http://www.prisonexp.org/pdf/pirandellian.pdf

Your assignment:

1. Briefly describe the problem (or research question),  procedure (participants, methods) and results of the study.

2. Do you see any potential problems with this study, ie., methodological issues, ethical concerns, etc.?

3. Do you agree with the authors’ conclusions?  Are there other factors we should consider?

4. In your opinion, could this study be repeated today and with the same results?  Why or why not?

5. From what you know of social psychology or other pertinent psychology courses you have taken, why might this study have been important?

Asch and Conformity 

Please go to this study. http://www.wadsworth.com/psychology_d/templates/student_resources/0155060678_rathus/ps/ps18.html

Your assignment:

1. Briefly describe the problem (or research question), the hypothesis, procedure (participants, methods) and results of the study.

2. Do you see any potential problems with this study, ie., methodological issues, ethical concerns, etc.?

3. Do you agree with the authors’ conclusions? Are there other factors we should consider?

4. In your opinion, could this study be repeated today and with the same results? Why or why not?

5. From what you know of social psychology or other pertinent psychology courses you have taken, why might this study have been important?

  The Abiline Paradox:  The Management of Agreement

Whereas, most of us are familiar with the Bystander Effect and Zimbardo’s Prison Study, this study is very different for those of us who might not have had any courses in organizational psychology.  As you will see many of the concepts we have learned early on in introductory psychology, social psychology and other courses come into play in this case.  See what you think.

Please click on the following link and enter your last name and ID number.

Harvey, J. B. (1974). The Abilene Paradox: The management of agreement.Organizational Dynamics, 3 (1), 63 – 80. doi: 10.1016/0090-2616(74)90005-9 http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=5140990&site=eds-live&scope=site

Your assignment:

I found the list of objectives for this article on page 66 would be a good starting point for our discussion.  You need not discuss all of these issues in depth, but try to hit the high points of 4 or 5 if you can. I have rephrased these for you below.   Also, please relate some of the concepts you have learned in your other courses whenever you can.

1) What is the Abilene paradox?  Describe some of the the symptoms of organizations caught in the paradox.

2) Tell us about one of the case studies that Harvey (1974) describes on pages 67-69.

3) Harvey discusses 5 factors when analyzing the paradox.  Discuss at least two of these and their importance in the paradox.

4) On page 73, Harvey discusses several terms that describe the risk factors of his model (A Possible Abilene Bypass). Discuss several of these as they relate to his model and to your understanding of these terms in social psychology.

5) How would someone go about diagnosing the paradox?  What suggestions does Harvey make?

6) What are his recommendations for coping with the paradox?

Your thoughts, and comments, please.  

Leiby Kletzy’s Abduction and Homicide

Read the case at:  http://sciencecases.lib.buffalo.edu/cs/files/social_reaction.pdf

First, provide a short description of the case.

Then, identify and explain at least 4 social psychological principles at work in this case.

For some ideas, see the worksheets following the case.

Bystander Intervention  

Please go to this study. You sill need to enter your last name and ID number and then download the study.

Darley, J. M., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility.  Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 8 (4), 377-383. http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=16645191&site=eds-live&scope=site

Your assignment:

1. Briefly describe the problem (or research question), the hypothesis, procedure (participants, methods) and results of the study.

2. Do you see any potential problems with this study, ie., methodological issues, ethical concerns, etc.?

3. Do you agree with the authors’ conclusions? Are there other factors we should consider?

4. In your opinion, could this study be repeated today and with the same results? Why or why not?

5. From what you know of social psychology or other pertinent psychology courses you have taken, why might this study have been important?

Darley, J. M., & Latané, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility.  Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 8 (4), 377-383.  http://ezproxy.umuc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=sih&AN=16645191&site=eds-live&scope=site

 

STUDY……

BYSTANDER INTERVENTION IN EMERGENCIES: DIFFUSION OF RESPONSIBILITY3 JOHN M. BARLEY New York University BIBB LATANfi Columbia University Ss overheard an epileptic seizure. They believed either that they alone heard the emergency, or that 1 or 4 unseen others were also present. As predicted the presence of other bystanders reduced the individual’s feelings of personal responsibility and lowered his speed of reporting (p < .01). In groups of size 3, males reported no faster than females, and females reported no slower when the 1 other bystander was a male rather than a female. In general, personality and background measures were not predictive of helping. Bystander inaction in real-life emergencies is often explained by “apathy,” “alienation,” and “anomie.” This experiment suggests that the explanation may lie more in the bystander’s response to other observers than in his indifference to the victim. Several years ago, a young woman was stabbed to death in the middle of a street in a residential section of New York City. Although such murders are not entirely routine, the incident received little public attention until several weeks later when the New York Times disclosed another side to the case: at least 38 witnesses had observed the attack— and none had even attempted to intervene. Although the attacker took more than half an hour to kill Kitty Genovese, not one of the 38 people who watched from the safety of their own apartments came out to assist her. Not one even lifted the telephone to call the police (Rosenthal, 1964). Preachers, professors, and news commentators sought the reasons for such apparently conscienceless and inhumane lack of intervention. Their conclusions ranged from “moral decay,” to “dehumanization produced by the urban environment,” to “alienation,” “anomie,” and “existential despair.” An analysis of the situation, however, suggests that factors other than apathy and indifference were involved. A person witnessing an emergency situation, particularly such a frightening and 1 This research was supported in part by National Science Foundation Grants GS1238 and GS1239. Susan Darley contributed materially to the design of the experiment and ran the subjects, and she and Thomas Moriarty analyzed the data. Richard Nisbett, Susan Millman, Andrew Gordon, and Norma Neiman helped in preparing the tape recordings. dangerous one as a stabbing, is in conflict. There are obvious humanitarian norms about helping the victim, but there are also rational and irrational fears about what might happen to a person who does intervene (Milgram & Hollander, 1964). “I didn’t want to get involved,” is a familiar comment, and behind it lies fears of physical harm, public embarrassment, involvement with police procedures, lost work days and jobs, and other unknown dangers. In certain circumstances, the norms favoring intervention may be weakened, leading bystanders to resolve the conflict in the direction of nonintervention. One of these circumstances may be the presence of other onlookers. For example, in the case above, each observer, by seeing lights and figures in other apartment house windows, knew that others were also watching. However, there was no way to tell how the other observers were reacting. These two facts provide several reasons why any individual may have delayed or failed to help. The responsibility for helping was diffused among the observers; there was also diffusion of any potential blame for not taking action; and finally, it was possible that somebody, unperceived, had already initiated helping action. When only one bystander is present in an emergency, if help is to come, it must come from him. Although he may choose to ignore it (out of concern for his personal safety, or desires “not to get involved”), any pres- 377 ,178 JOHN M. DARLEY AND BIBB LATANTC sure to intervene focuses uniquely on him. When there are several observers present, however, the pressures to intervene do not focus on any one of the observers; instead the responsibility for intervention is shared among all the onlookers and is not unique to any one. As a result, no one helps. A second possibility is that potential blame may be diffused. However much we may wish to think that an individual’s moral behavior is divorced from considerations of personal punishment or reward, there is both theory and evidence to the contrary (Aronfreed, 1964; Miller & Bollard, 1941, Whiting & Child, 19S3). It is perfectly reasonable to assume that, under circumstances of group responsibility for a punishable act, the punishment or blame that accrues to any one individual is often slight or nonexistent. Finally, if others are known to be present, but their behavior cannot be closely observed, any one bystander can assume that one of the other observers is already taking action to end the emergency. Therefore, his own intervention would be only redundant—perhaps harmfully or confusingly so. Thus, given the presence of other onlookers whose behavior cannot be observed, any given bystander can rationalize his own inaction by convincing himself that “somebody else must be doing something.” These considerations lead to the hypothesis that the more bystanders to an emergency, the less likely, or the more slowly, any one bystander will intervene to provide aid. To test this propostion it would be necessary to create a situation in which a realistic “emergency” could plausibly occur. Each subject should also be blocked from communicating with others to prevent his getting information about their behavior during the emergency. Finally, the experimental situation should allow for the assessment of the speed and frequency of the subjects’ reaction to the emergency. The experiment reported below attempted to fulfill these conditions. PROCEDURE Overview. A college student arrived in the laboratory and was ushered into an individual room from which a communication system would enable him to talk to the other participants. It was explained to him that he was to take part in a discussion about personal problems associated with college life and that the discussion would be held over the intercom system, rather than face-to-face, in order to avoid embarrassment by preserving the anonymity of the subjects. During the course of the discussion, one of the other subjects underwent what appeared to be a very serious nervous seizure similar to epilepsy. During the fit it was impossible for the subject to talk to the other discussants or to find out what, if anything, they were doing about the emergency. The dependent variable was the speed with which the subjects reported the emergency to the experimenter. The major independent variable was the number of people the subject thought to be in the discussion group. Subjects. Fifty-nine female and thirteen male students in introductory psychology courses at New York University were contacted to take part in an unspecified experiment as part of a class requirement. Method. Upon arriving for the experiment, the subject found himself in a long corridor with doors opening off it to several small rooms. An experimental assistant met him, took him to one of the rooms, and seated him at a table. After filling out a background information form, the subject was given a pair of headphones with an attached microphone and was told to listen for instructions. Over the intercom, the experimenter explained that he was interested in learning about the kinds of personal problems faced by normal college students in a high pressure, urban environment. He said that to avoid possible embarrassment about discussing personal problems with strangers several precautions had been taken. First, subjects would remain anonymous, which was why they had been placed in individual rooms rather than face-to-face. (The actual reason for this was to allow tape recorder simulation of the other subjects and the emergency.) Second, since the discussion might be inhibited by the presence of outside listeners, the experimenter would not listen to the initial discussion, but would get the subject’s reactions later, by questionnaire. (The real purpose of this was to remove the obviously responsible experimenter from the scene of the emergency.) The subjects were told that since the experimenter was not present, it was necessary to impose some organization. Each person would talk in turn, presenting his problems to the group. Next, each person in turn would comment on what the others had said, and finally, there would be a free discussion. A mechanical switching device would regulate this discussion sequence and each subject’s microphone would be on for about 2 minutes. While any microphone was on, all other microphones would be off. Only one subject, therefore, could be heard over the network at any given time. The subjects were thus led to realize when they later heard the seizure that only the victim’s microphone was on and that there was no way of determining what any of the other witnesses were doing, nor of discussing the event and its possible solution with the others. When these instructions had been given, the discussion began. BYSTANDER INTERVENTION IN EMERGENCIES 379 In the discussion, the future victim spoke first, saying that he found it difficult to get adjusted to New York City and lo his studies. Very hesitantly, and with obvious embarrassment, he mentioned that he was prone to seizures, particularly when studying hard or taking exams. The other people, including the real subject, took their turns and discussed similar problems (minus, of course, the proneness to seizures). The naive subject talked last in the series, after the last prerecorded voice was played.2 When it was again the victim’s turn to talk, he made a few relatively calm comments, and then, growing increasingly louder and incoherent, he continued: I-er-um-I think I-I necd-er-if-if could-er-er-somebody er-er-er-er-er-er-er give me a liltle-er-give me a little help here because-er-I-er-I’m-er-erh-h-having a-a-a real problcm-er-right now and I-er-if somebody could help me out it would-it would-er-er s-s-sure be-sure be good . . . becausecr-there-er-cr-a cause I-er-I-uh-I’ve got a-a one of the-er-sei er-cr-things coming on and-and-and I could really-er-use some help so if somebody would-er-give me a little h-help-uh-er-er-er-er-er c-could somebody-er-er-help-er-uh-uh-uh (choking sounds). . . . I’m gonna die-er-er-I’m . . . gonna die-er-help-er-er-seizure-er-[chokes, then quiet]. The experimenter began timing the speed of the real subject’s response at the beginning of the victim’s speech. Informed judges listening to the tape have estimated that the victim’s increasingly louder and more disconnected ramblings clearly represented a breakdown about 70 seconds after the signal for the victim’s second speech. The victim’s speech was abruptly cut off 125 seconds after this signal, which could be interpreted by the subject as indicating that the time allotted for that speaker had elapsed and the switching circuits had switched away from him. Times reported in the results are measured from the start of the fit. Group size variable. The major independent variable of the study was the number of other people that the subject believed also heard the fit. By the assistant’s comments before the experiment, and also by the number of voices heard to speak in the first round of the group discussion, the subject was led lo believe that the discussion group was one of three sizes: either a two-person group (consisting of a person who would later have a fit and the real subject), a three-person group (consisting of the victim, the real subject, and one confederate voice), or a six-person group (consisting of the victim, the real subject, and four confederate voices). All the confederates’ voices were tape-recorded. Variations in group composition. Varying the kind as well as the number of bystanders present at an 2 To test whether the order in which the subjects spoke in the first discussion round significantly affected the subjects’ speed of report, the order in which the subjects spoke was varied (in the sixperson group). This had no significant or noticeable effect on the speed of the subjects’ reports. emergency should also vary the amount of responsibility felt by any single bystander. To test this, several variations of the three-person group were run. In one three-person condition, the taped bystander voice was that of a female, in another a male, and in the third a male who said that he was a premedical student who occasionally worked in the emergency wards at Bellevue hospital. In the above conditions, the subjects were female college students. In a final condition males drawn from the same introductory psychology subject pool were tested in a three-person female-bystander condition. Time to help. The major dependent variable was the time elapsed from the start of the victim’s fit until the subject left her experimental cubicle. When the subject left her room, she saw the experimental assistant seated at the end of the hall, and invariably went to the assistant. If 6 minutes elapsed without the subject having emerged from her room, the experiment was terminated. As soon as the subject reported the emergency, or after 6 minutes had elapsed, the experimental assistant disclosed the true nature of the experiment, and dealt with any emotions aroused in the subject. Finally the subject filled out a questionnaire concerning her thoughts and feelings during the emergency, and completed scales of Machiavellianism, anomie, and authoritarianism (Christie, 1964), a social desirability scale (Crowne & Marlowe, 1964), a social responsibility scale (Daniels & Berkowitz, 1964), and reported vital statistics and socioeconomic data. RESULTS Plausibility of Manipulation Judging by the subjects’ nervousness when they reported the fit to the experimenter, by their surprise when they discovered that the fit was simulated, and by comments they made during the fit (when they thought their microphones were off), one can conclude that almost all of the subjects perceived the fit as real. There were two exceptions in different experimental conditions, and the data for these subjects were dropped from the analysis. Effect of Group Size on Helping The number of bystanders that the subject perceived to be present had a major effect on the likelihood with which she would report the emergency (Table 1). Eighty-five percent of the subjects who thought they alone knew of the victim’s plight reported the seizure before the victim was cut off, only 31% of those who thought four other bystanders were present did so. 380 JOHN M. DARLF.V AND BIBB LATANIR TABLE 1 ‘KCTS 01? GROUPS SIZE ON LIKELIHOOD AND SPEED or RESPONSE Group size 2 (5 & victim) 3 (S, victim, & 1 other) 6 (.9, victim, & 4 others) N 13 26 13 % responding by end of fit 85 62 31 Time in sec. 52 93 166 Speed score .87 .72 .51 Note.—p value of diffciences: x 2 = 7.91, p < .02; 7” = 8.09, p < .01, for speed scores. Every one of the subjects in the twoperson groups, but only 62% of the subjects in the six-person groups, ever reported the emergency. The cumulative distributions of response times for groups of different perceived size (Figure 1) indicates that, by any point in time, more subjects from the two-person groups had responded than from the three-person groups, and more from the three-person groups than from the six-person groups. Ninety-five percent of all the subjects who ever responded did so within the first half of the time available to them. No subject who had not reported within 3 minutes after the fit ever did so. The shape of these distributions suggest that had the experiment been allowed to run for a considerably longer time, few additional subjects would have responded. Speed of Response To achieve a more detailed analysis of the results, each subject’s time score was transloo 12o 16O 2oo 24O 28O Seconds from Beginning of Fit FIG. 1. Cumulative distributions of helping responses. formed into a “speed” score by taking the reciprocal of the response time in seconds and multiplying by 100. The effect of this transformation was to deemphasize differences between longer time scores, thus reducing the contribution to the results of the arbitrary 6-minute limit on scores. A high speed score indicates a fast response. An analysis of variance indicates that the effect of group size is highly significant (/> < .01). Duncan multiple-range tests indicate that all but the two- and three-person groups differ significantly from one another (#<.OS). Victim’s Likelihood of Being Helped An individual subject is less likely to respond if he thinks that others are present. But what of the victim? Is the inhibition of the response of each individual strong enough to counteract the fact that with five onlookers there are five times as many people available to help? From the data of this experiment, it is possible mathematically to create hypothetical groups with one, two, or five observers.8 The calculations indicate that the victim is about equally likely to get help from one bystander as from two. The victim is considerably more likely to have gotten help from one or two observers than from five during the first minute of the fit. For instance, by 45 seconds after the start of the fit, the victim’s chances of having been helped by the single bystanders were about 50%, compared to none in the five observer condition. After the first minute, the likelihood of getting help from at least one person is high in all three conditions. Effect of Group Composition on Helping the Victim Several variations of the three-person group were run. In one pair of variations, the female subject thought the other bystander was either male or female; in another, she thought the other bystander was a premedical student who worked in an emergency ward at Bellevue hospital. As Table 2 shows, the 8 The formula for the probability that at least one person will help by a given time is 1 —(1—P) ” where n is the number of observers and P is the probability of a single individual (who thinks he is one of n observers) helping by that time. BYSTANDER INTERVENTION IN EMERGENCIES 381 TABLE 2 EFI’ECTS OF GROUP COMPOSITION ON LIKKLIHOOH AND SPEED OF RESPONSE” Group composition Female S, male other Female S, female other Female 5, male medic other Male S, female other N 13 13 5 13 % responding by end of fit 62 62 100 69 Time in sec. 94 92 60 110 Speed score 74 71 77 68 » Three-person group, mule victim. variations in sex and medical competence of the other bystander had no important or detectable affect on speed of response. Subjects responded equally frequently and fast whether the other bystander was female, male, or medically experienced. Sex of the Subject and Speed of Response Coping with emergencies is often thought to be the duty of males, especially when females are present, but there was no evidence that this was the case in this study. Male subjects responded to the emergency with almost exactly the same speed as did females (Table 2). Reasons for Intervention or Nonintervention After the debriefing at the end of the experiment each subject was given a 15-item checklist and asked to check those thoughts which had “crossed your mind when you heard Subject 1 calling for help.” Whatever the condition, each subject checked very few thoughts, and there were no significant differences in number or kind of thoughts in the different experimental groups. The only thoughts checked by more than a few subjects were “I didn’t know what to do” (18 out of 65 subjects), “I thought it must be some sort of fake” (20 out of 65), and “I didn’t know exactly what was happening” (26 out of 65). It is possible that subjects were ashamed to report socially undesirable rationalizations, or, since the subjects checked the list after the true nature of the experiment had been explained to them, their memories might have been blurred. It is our impression, however, that most subjects checked few reasons because they had few coherent thoughts during the fit. We asked all subjects whether the presence or absence of other bystanders had entered their minds during the time that they were hearing the fit. Subjects in the three- and six-person groups reported that they were aware that other people were present, but they felt that this made no difference to their own behavior. Individual Difference Correlates of Speed of Report The correlations between speed of report and various individual differences on the personality and background measures were obtained by normalizing the distribution of report speeds within each experimental condition and pooling these scores across all conditions (« = 62-65). Personality measures showed no important or significant correlations with speed of reporting the emergency. In fact, only one of the 16 individual difference measures, the size of the community in which the subject grew up, correlated (r = -.26, p < .05) with the speed of helping. DISCUSSION Subjects, whether or not they intervened, believed the fit to be genuine and serious. “My God, he’s having a fit,” many subjects said to themselves (and were overheard via their microphones) at the onset of the fit. Others gasped or simply said “Oh.” Several of the male subjects swore. One subject said to herself, “It’s just my kind of luck, something has to happen to me!” Several subjects spoke aloud of their confusion about what course of action to take, “Oh God, what should I do?” When those subjects who intervened stepped out of their rooms, they found the experimental assistant down the hall. With some uncertainty, but without panic, they reported the situation. “Hey, I think Number 1 is very sick. He’s having a fit or something.” After ostensibly checking on the situation, the experimenter returned to report that “everything is under control.” The subjects accepted these assurances with obvious relief. Subjects who failed to report the emergency showed few signs of the apathy and 382 JOHN M. BARLEY AND BIBB LATANTC indifference thought to characterize “unresponsive bystanders.” When the experimenter entered her room to terminate the situation, the subject often asked if the victim was “all right.” “Is he being taken care of?” “He’s all right isn’t he?” Many of these subjects showed physical signs of nervousness; they often had trembling hands and sweating palms. If anything, they seemed more emotionally aroused than did the subjects who reported the emergency. Why, then, didn’t they respond? It is our impression that nonintervening subjects had not decided not to respond. Rather they were still in a state of indecision and conflict concerning whether to respond or not. The emotional behavior of these nonresponding subjects was a sign of their continuing conflict, a conflict that other subjects resolved by responding. The fit created a conflict situation of the avoidance-avoidance type. On the one hand, subjects worried about the guilt and shame they would feel if they did not help the person in distress. On the other hand, they were concerned not to make fools of themselves by overreacting, not to ruin the ongoing experiment by leaving their intercom, and not to destroy the anonymous nature of the situation which the experimenter had earlier stressed as important. For subjects in the two-person condition, the obvious distress of the victim and his need for help were so important that their conflict was easily resolved. For the subjects who knew there were other bystanders present, the cost of not helping was reduced and the conflict they were in more acute. Caught between the two negative alternatives of letting the victim continue to suffer or the costs of rushing in to help, the nonresponding bystanders vacillated between them rather than choosing not to respond. This distinction may be academic for the victim, since he got no help in either case, but it is an extremely important one for arriving at an understanding of the causes of bystanders’ failures to help. Although the subjects experienced stress and conflict during the experiment, their general reactions to it were highly positive. On a questionnaire administered after the experimenter had discussed the nature and purpose of the experiment, every single subject found the experiment either “interesting” or “very interesting” and was willing to participate in similar experiments in the future. All subjects felt they understood what the experiment was about and indicated that they thought the deceptions were necessary and justified. All but one felt they were better informed about the nature of psychological research in general. Male subjects reported the emergency no faster than did females. These results (or lack of them) seem to conflict with the Berkowitz, Klanderman, and Harris (1964) finding that males tend to assume more responsibility and take more initiative than females in giving help to dependent others. Also, females reacted equally fast when the other bystander was another female, a male, or even a person practiced in dealing with medical emergencies. The ineffectiveness of these manipulations of group composition cannot be explained by general insensitivity of the speed measure, since the group-size variable had a marked effect on report speed. It might be helpful in understanding this lack of difference to distinguish two general classes of intervention in emergency situations: direct and reportorial. Direct intervention (breaking up a fight, extinguishing a fire, swimming out to save a drowner) often requires skill, knowledge, or physical power. It may involve danger. American cultural norms and Berkowitz’s results seem to suggest that males are more responsible than females for this kind of direct intervention. A second way of dealing with an emergency is to report it to someone qualified to handle it, such as the police. For this kind of intervention, there seem to be no norms requiring male action. In the present study, subjects clearly intended to report the emergency rather than take direct action. For such indirect intervention, sex or medical competence does not appear to affect one’s qualifications or responsibilities. Anybody, male or female, medically trained or not, can find the experimenter. In this study, no subject was able to tell how the other subjects reacted to the fit. (Indeed, there were no other subjects actually present.) The effects of group size on BYSTANDER INTERVENTION IN EMERGENCIES 383 speed of helping, therefore, are due simply to the perceived presence of others rather than to the influence of their actions. This means that the experimental situation is unlike emergencies, such as a fire, in which bystanders interact with each other. It is, however, similar to emergencies, such as the Genovese murder, in which spectators knew others were also watching but were prevented by walls between them from communication that might have counteracted the diffusion of responsibility. The present results create serious difficulties for one class of commonly given explanations for the failure of bystanders to intervene in actual emergencies, those involving apathy or indifference. These explanations generally assert that people who fail to intervene are somehow different in kind from the rest of us, that they ar

Please read make sure that its APA formated , and cite inside the paper and reference page.

Assignment 2: Critical Evaluation of Court Case

It is important to understand the impact an expert testimony may have in the ultimate decision made by a court. In addition, it is helpful for practitioners of forensic psychology to be able to read and understand legal cases.

Tasks:

Click here to review the case Commonwealth of Virginia v. Allen (2005).

The case describes an appellate legal opinion or court decision involving expert witness testimony. When a case is appealed, it goes to an appellate or to a higher court. The appellate court then reviews the findings of the lower court, which in this case was the trial court. The appellate court offered the following two opinions: The first opinion (Commonwealth of Virginia v. Allen, 2005, pp. 1–24) is the majority opinion and is the one that counts. The second opinion (Commonwealth of Virginia v. Allen, 2005, pp. 24–31) is an opinion filed by a minority of judges who concurred (agreed) in part and dissented (disagreed) in part with the majority of the judges who ruled.

After reading the appellate legal opinion, write a 2- to 3-page paper addressing the following: Discuss whether either of the expert witnesses in this case acted unethically. Support your opinion with the relevant APA or specialty ethical guidelines. Indicate whether you agree with the majority decision or the minority concurring or dissenting opinion. Explain why.

The paper should be in APA style.

                                  Reading  material

    

Present: All the Justices COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA*  v.  Record No. 041454
RICHARD BRYAN ALLEN

          OPINION BY
JUSTICE LAWRENCE L. KOONTZ, JR.
        March 3, 2005

          FROM THE CIRCUIT COURT OF THE CITY OF ALEXANDRIA
               Alfred D. Swersky, Judge Designate
    Pursuant to Code § 37.1-70.6(A), the Commonwealth
petitioned the Circuit Court of the City of Alexandria to
civilly commit Richard Bryan Allen as a sexually violent
predator.  Following a hearing, the trial court sitting without
a jury determined that the Commonwealth had not met its burden
of proving by clear and convincing evidence that Allen is a
sexually violent predator.  Accordingly, the trial court
dismissed the Commonwealth’s petition.  The Commonwealth appeals
from this judgment, contending that the trial court erred in
admitting the testimony of Allen’s expert witness, a
psychologist who is not licensed to practice in Virginia.  The
Commonwealth further contends that the trial court erred in
finding that the Commonwealth had not met its burden of proof.

* In the trial court this case was styled “Jerry W. Kilgore, Attorney General of Virginia, ex rel. Commonwealth of Virginia v. Richard Bryan Allen.” We have amended the style of the case to reflect that the Commonwealth is the real party in interest, not a relator. See Townes v. Commonwealth, 269 Va. ___, ___ n.*, ___ S.E.2d ___, ___ n.* (2005) (today decided). 

                              BACKGROUND
    On January 19, 1983, Allen was convicted of the aggravated
sexual battery of an eight-year-old girl and a nine-year-old
girl.  Allen was sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment for each
offense, with the sentences to run consecutively.
    Allen was released on parole on September 13, 2001.  Within
days of his release, however, Allen violated the conditions of
his parole and was returned to prison to serve the remainder of
his sentence.  On July 9, 2003, as required by Code § 37.1-
70.4(C), the Director of the Virginia Department of Corrections
notified the Commitment Review Committee (CRC) that Allen, who
was scheduled to be released from prison on September 14, 2003,
was subject to review for commitment because he was incarcerated
for a sexually violent offense and had been identified through a
preliminary screening test as being likely to re-offend.  As
required by Code § 37.1-70.5(B), the CRC referred Allen to Dr.
Ronald M. Boggio, Ph.D., a licensed clinical psychologist, for
evaluation.  Following receipt of Dr. Boggio’s evaluation
report, the CRC completed its assessment of Allen and, on August
7, 2003, forwarded to the Attorney General a recommendation that

   the Commonwealth seek to have Allen committed to a secure mental
health facility as a sexually violent predator.
    On August 14, 2003, the Commonwealth filed in the trial
court a petition for the civil commitment of Allen as a sexually
violent predator.  The trial court appointed counsel to
represent Allen, Code § 37.1-70.2, and, upon Allen’s motion,
ordered that funds be provided for a mental health expert to aid
in Allen’s defense, Code § 37.1-70.8.  Thereafter, the trial
court conducted a hearing as required by Code § 37.1-70.7.  The
trial court determined that there was probable cause to believe
that Allen is a sexually violent predator and ordered that Allen
be held in custody until a full hearing on the Commonwealth’s
petition could be conducted.  Although permitted by Code § 37.1-
70.9(B), neither Allen nor the Commonwealth requested a jury
trial on the commitment petition.

On December 12, 2003, the trial court conducted a trial on the Commonwealth’s petition.1 The Commonwealth presented evidence from Carmen Baylor, the custodian of records for the Greensville Correctional Center where Allen had been 

1 Code § 37.1-70.9 requires that the trial be conducted within 90 days of the determination of probable cause under Code § 37.1-70.7. In a continuance order entered October 30, 2003, Allen waived his objection to the ninety-day requirement. 

  

incarcerated. Baylor testified that while incarcerated Allen had committed 246 institutional infractions, including 15 for assault, four for indecent exposure, most recently in January 2003, and one instance of having consensual sex with another inmate.2      Barbara Ward, a senior probation/parole officer with the
Alexandria Adult Probation/Parole Office testified for the
Commonwealth that she was assigned to supervise Allen’s parole
following his initial release from prison on September 13, 2001.
Ward testified that she explained the rules of his parole to
Allen, and that he acknowledged his agreement to abide by them.
Nonetheless, Allen was late for his next meeting with Ward on
September 17, 2001 and failed to appear for the next subsequent
meeting.
    Ward testified she learned that Allen had been seen with a
young woman with Down’s Syndrome who was referring to Allen as

2 Allen has not assigned cross-error to the admission of evidence concerning non-sexual institutional infractions or the total number of infractions. Accordingly, we express no opinion on the admissibility of that evidence and will consider its weight in reviewing the trial court’s final judgment. But see McCloud v. Commonwealth, 269 Va. ___, ___, ___ S.E.2d ___, ___ (2005) (holding that trial court did not abuse its discretion in limiting introduction of such evidence in a jury trial on the Commonwealth’s petition to commit a prisoner as a sexually violent predator). 

   her “boyfriend.”  After Allen was arrested for violating the
terms of his parole by failing to meet with Ward, Ward went to
Allen’s room at the halfway house where he had been staying and
discovered that he had come into possession of a pornographic
magazine.
    Dr. Boggio, the psychologist who had performed the pre-
release evaluation of Allen for the CRC, testified as the
Commonwealth’s mental health expert.  Dr. Boggio principally
based his testimony upon the personal interview and tests he had
conducted during his evaluation of Allen.  Dr. Boggio testified
that Allen recounted a lengthy history of behavioral problems
from an early age, including setting fires, police
confrontations, and hitting other children and teachers.  Allen
was suspended from the New York City public schools as a result
of his violence, and lived as a runaway for a period of time.
    Dr. Boggio further testified that Allen bragged about the
extent of his violent behavior and expressed no remorse.   Allen
told Dr. Boggio that ever since Allen was a child he had been
known for having a “temper problem” and for being easily
angered.  When Allen was a teenager, he pulled a knife on a
female co-worker who referred to him with a racial slur.

       According to Dr. Boggio, Allen had a long history of
psychiatric care that began as a juvenile, including both in-
patient and out-patient treatment.  Allen was expelled for
fighting from the Commonwealth Center for Children &
Adolescents, then known as the DeJarnette Center, an acute care
mental health facility operated by the Virginia Department of
Mental Health, Mental Retardation and Substance Abuse Services.
Dr. Boggio also reviewed the pre-sentence investigation from
Allen’s convictions for aggravated sexual battery, which
revealed that his behavioral problems began at age four-and-a-
half, including disruptive and aggressive behavior, and later
included sexually inappropriate behavior.  Allen also reported
13 suicide attempts, beginning at age 13.  Dr. Boggio also
testified that the official records indicated Allen had
diagnoses of the depressive disorder spectrum as well as
antisocial personality disorder (APD) and polysubstance
dependence.  At least two of Allen’s institutional charges were
for possession or use of alcohol or illegal substances.
    Allen reported to Dr. Boggio that his first sexual
experience was intercourse with two girls when he was 16; one
girl was between 11 and 13 years of age and the other was 13 or
14.  Allen also told Dr. Boggio that he had an on-going sexual

   relationship with an eleven-year-old girl when he was seventeen.
Allen also claimed to have had a sexual relationship with the
mother of his two victims, and admitted that he had engaged in
homosexual activity while in prison.  Allen claimed never to
have been “in love” with anyone despite having had many
different relationships.
    Dr. Boggio testified that Allen claimed he thought his
nine-year-old victim was twelve, because she was “very
developed.”  He also claimed that the nine-year-old victim
initiated the sexual encounter.  He denied having assaulted the
eight-year-old victim.  Dr. Boggio found it important to note
that Allen had no immediate post-abuse feelings about himself,
the victims, or his behavior other than to deny involvement, and
that Allen expressed no remorse for the victims.  Similarly,
Allen denied responsibility for the infractions he committed
while incarcerated.
     Dr. Boggio diagnosed Allen with APD, dysthymic disorder,
and polysubstance dependence.  Dr. Boggio testified, reading
from the American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (4th ed. Revised text
2000), regarding APD:
    In order to meet this diagnosis, one has to have three
    of the following:  Failure to conform to social norms

       with respect to lawful behaviors, as indicated by
    repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest
    . . . deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying,
    use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit
    or pleasure . . . impulsivity or failure to plan ahead
    . . . irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by
    repeated physical fights or assaults . . . reckless
    disregard for the safety of self or others . . .
    consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated
    failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor
    financial obligations . . . lack of remorse, as
    indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing
    having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.
    Additionally, the individual has to be at least 18
    years of age and has evidence of conduct disorder with
    onset before age 15.
Dr. Boggio testified that Allen met all of these criteria, with
the possible exception of failing to maintain a consistent work
history.
     Based on tests he administered to Allen, Dr. Boggio
testified that Allen has a composite IQ score of 103, plus or
minus 6 points, indicating that Allen is of average
intelligence.  Dr. Boggio also had Allen complete the Millon
Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III).  Dr. Boggio
testified that Allen’s responses to the MCMI-III showed that he
has longstanding personality defects with no coping mechanisms,
meaning that Allen would repeat problem behaviors over and over
again, despite the consequences.
    Dr. Boggio also had Allen complete the Hare Psychopathy
Checklist Revised (Hare), an instrument designed to measure
                                  8

   psychopathic behaviors.  Allen’s score on this test placed him
in approximately the 90th percentile of incarcerated
individuals, suggesting a strong indication of a psychopathy to
take advantage of and manipulate people without regard to their
feelings or thoughts, and a tendency not to show remorse for
this behavior.  Dr. Boggio found the results of the Hare test
correlated with all the things that Allen had said during their
interview.

Dr. Boggio also administered the Static-99, a test used to predict sex offender recidivism, to Allen. According to Dr. Boggio, Allen’s scores on this test predicted that Allen would have a 33% likelihood of committing another sexual offense after 5 years following his release from prison, a 38% likelihood after 10 years, and a 40% likelihood after 15 years. Using a formula to extrapolate beyond 15 years, Dr. Boggio concluded that Allen would have a 62.7% likelihood of recidivism after 25 years. On the Rapid Risk Assessment for Sex Offender Recidivism test, Dr. Boggio scored Allen with a 36.9% chance of reconviction in 10 years, and a 60.8% likelihood of reconviction in 25 years.3 Dr. Boggio also testified that these tests rely 

3 Dr. Boggio explained that there is a difference between recidivism, that is the committing of a crime without regard to 

   upon actuarial predictions and do not purport to satisfy
completely the issue the tester “is being asked to predict.”
    Dr. Boggio testified that in his opinion Allen is likely to
re-offend in the future because of an inability to control those
impulses that arise because of his personality disorder.  Dr.
Boggio noted that Allen’s lack of concern for others and his
tendency to act compulsively and without remorse make Allen much
more likely to be a repeat offender because he fails to see the
importance of respecting the rights of others.
    Dr. Boggio did not diagnose Allen as a pedophile, but
opined that Allen has a tendency to act to satisfy his own needs
and a “belief that people can be manipulated and that people can
be taken advantage of.”  Dr. Boggio testified that this
“predatory behavior” puts children as well as individuals with
impaired cognitive functioning at risk because they are easily
manipulated.
    In conclusion, Dr. Boggio testified that in his opinion
Allen needed in-patient treatment in a secure mental health
facility.  He opined that out-patient treatment would not be
appropriate because Allen has had no sex offender treatment
whether the subject is arrested and convicted, and reconviction,
that is actually being convicted for an offense.

10 

   while in prison, has no awareness that he needs help, was unable
to follow rules while on parole, and has a long history of not
being able to follow rules.
    Dr. Timothy P. Foley, Ph.D., testified as an expert witness
for Allen.  Dr. Foley is a psychologist licensed in Pennsylvania
and New Jersey.  Although not licensed to practice in Virginia,
Dr. Foley contacted the Virginia Board of Psychology and
obtained permission to perform an evaluation of Allen in
Virginia.
    To establish Dr. Foley’s qualifications as an expert, Allen
elicited testimony from Dr. Foley concerning his background and
experience in the field of treating sexually violent persons.
Dr. Foley testified that he had previously evaluated
approximately 250 sexually violent predators for the courts and
as a defense expert and had testified in over 200 such cases.
Dr. Foley further testified that currently he is employed by
federal district courts in both Pennsylvania and New Jersey to
assess and treat sexual offenders.  He previously was the
supervisor of the sexual offender program at a state prison in
Pennsylvania for two years.  Dr. Foley’s curriculum vitae, which
was admitted into evidence, showed that he is a member of the
Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers and has

11 

   published numerous articles concerning treatment of sexual
offenders.  Dr. Foley testified that he is familiar with the
statutory standards that apply to proceedings for the commitment
of sexually violent predators in Virginia.
    The Commonwealth objected to Dr. Foley being qualified as
an expert witness, asserting that “he’s not licensed in this
state or familiar with the state standards.”  The trial court
overruled the Commonwealth’s objection.
    Dr. Foley testified that he had reviewed Allen’s
institutional file from the Department of Corrections and other
reports.  Dr. Foley also administered various tests to Allen
including the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and
the Abel Screen.  Dr. Foley testified that the Abel Screen is a
valid, reliable test to determine sexual preferences and
abnormal interests.  Dr. Foley concurred in Dr. Boggio’s
conclusion that Allen was not a pedophile, but opined that he
has a “socially deviant” interest in sexually mature underage
females.  Dr. Foley characterized this as “a common finding
among heterosexual males.”
    Dr. Foley administered a longer version of the Hare
Psychopathy Checklist to Allen.  Dr. Foley testified that Allen
received a prorated score of 26.7, which is not indicative of a

12 

   psychopathic classification.  Dr. Foley testified that the most
robust predictors of sexual offense recidivism are measured
sexual deviance and evidence of psychopathy, and that Allen
scored below the range of the psychopathy cutoff.
    Dr. Foley testified that he also administered the Static-99
to Allen and that the results were comparable to those achieved
when Dr. Boggio administered that test.  While Dr. Foley agreed
with Dr. Boggio’s general assessment of the results of the
Static-99 with regard to the likelihood that Allen would re-
offend, he characterized that result as meaning “there is less
than half a chance that Allen would be a recidivist [after] 15
years.”  Dr. Foley further qualified his assessment of the
Static-99 results by stating that the base population for the
test were adults who “had committed offenses as adults and had
been on the street for a period of time,” whereas Allen had been
a juvenile at the time of his original offenses and “has never
been on the street as an adult.”
    Dr. Foley agreed with Dr. Boggio’s assessment that Allen
suffers from APD.  Dr. Foley testified that while Allen’s
antisocial personality traits “[p]robably . . . will remain for
the rest of [his] life,” his “propensity to act them out will
decrease with age.”  Moreover, it was Dr. Foley’s opinion that

13 

   Allen “did not . . . suffer[] from an inability to control his
sexual impulses.”  Dr. Foley testified that in his opinion
Allen’s personality disorder does not predispose him to commit
sexually violent offenses.
    On rebuttal, Dr. Boggio testified that he disagreed with
Dr. Foley’s opinion regarding Allen’s propensity to re-offend.
While Dr. Boggio agreed that Allen’s propensity to act on his
sexual impulses would decrease, he opined that Allen would
remain at risk for re-offending throughout his life.
    Dr. Boggio disagreed with Dr. Foley’s use of the Abel
Screen as a predictor of sexual preferences and abnormal
interests.  He testified that published reliability data suggest
that the Abel Screen is not accurate.  Dr. Boggio further
testified that several state and federal courts have held that
the Abel Screen is not scientifically reliable.
    Dr. Boggio also disagreed with Dr. Foley’s assumption that
psychopathy is the most robust predictor of recidivism.  Dr.
Boggio opined that sexual deviance and antisocial lifestyle are
more predictive of a person’s future actions, and that
psychopathy is just one part of the equation.
    Dr. Boggio reiterated his opinion that, in light of Allen’s
APD, his demonstrated history of antisocial offending, and his

14 

   convictions for predatory sexual offenses, Allen is likely to
re-offend in the future.  Dr. Boggio opined that this likelihood
is more than 50% based on all the actuarial data.
    In its summation, the trial court noted that “each of the
experts [were] both well-qualified, both well-prepared, and
convincing.”  Thus, although it expressed “a very, very
generalized fear of releasing Mr. Allen on the public,” the
trial court ruled that the Commonwealth had not proven by clear
and convincing evidence that Allen is likely to engage in
sexually violent acts in the future.  Accordingly, the trial
court dismissed the Commonwealth’s petition to have Allen
civilly committed as a sexually violent predator.
    On February 18, 2004, the Commonwealth filed a motion to
reconsider.  The Commonwealth renewed its objection to the trial
court’s ruling permitting Dr. Foley to testify as an expert
witness because he is not licensed to practice in Virginia.  The
Commonwealth further contended that Dr. Foley’s evaluation of
Allen was based on “an incorrect standard” that would require
proof that a prisoner is incapable of controlling his sexually
violent impulses, rather than proof that a prisoner is likely to
re-offend.

15 

       On March 24, 2004, the trial court entered an order denying
the Commonwealth’s motion to reconsider.  In that same order,
the trial court reiterated its prior ruling that the
Commonwealth had not proven by clear and convincing evidence
that Allen “is a sexually violent predator within the meaning of
Virginia Code Section 37.1-70.1, et seq.”  Accordingly, the
trial court dismissed the Commonwealth’s petition and ordered
that Allen be unconditionally released.  This appeal followed.
                           DISCUSSION
    This case, along with Townes v. Commonwealth, 269 Va. ___,
___ S.E.2d ___ (2005) (today decided) and McCloud v.
Commonwealth, 269 Va. ___, ___ S.E.2d ___ (2005) (today
decided), involves the procedures required to be followed in
order for the Commonwealth to have a prisoner who has been
convicted of a sexually violent offense declared to be a
sexually violent predator and to have that prisoner
involuntarily committed to a secure mental health facility upon
his release from prison.  Those procedures are set out in
Chapter 2, Article 1.1 of Title 37.1, commonly referred to as
the Sexually Violent Predators Act (SVPA).  Code §§ 37.1-70.1
through 37.1-70.19.  We have reviewed those procedures in some

16 

   detail in McCloud and need not do so again here.  This case
presents issues not addressed in Townes or McCloud.

We first address the Commonwealth’s contention that the trial court erred in permitting Dr. Foley to qualify as an expert witness at trial because he is not licensed to practice in Virginia. At the time the trial court granted Allen’s motion for funds to employ Dr. Foley as an expert, Code § 37.1-70.8(A) (Supp. 2003) provided:4           Any person who is the subject of a petition under
    this article shall have, prior to trial, the right to
    employ experts at his own expense to perform
    examinations and testify on his behalf.  However, if a
    person has not employed an expert and requests expert
    assistance, the judge shall appoint such experts as he
    deems necessary to perform examinations and
    participate in the trial on the person’s behalf.

4 In 2004, Code § 37.1-70.8(A) was amended and now requires that any expert appointed to assist a defendant “shall have the qualifications required by subsection B of § 37.1-70.5.” See Acts 2004, ch. 764. Code § 37.1-70.5(B) sets the qualifications for the professional designated by the CRC to perform the mental health examination of a prisoner identified as being subject to the SVPA and provides that the examination must be conducted by “a licensed psychiatrist or a licensed clinical psychologist, designated by the Commissioner of the Department of Mental Health, Mental Retardation and Substance Abuse Services.” A further provision of the amended version of Code § 37.1-70.8(A) provides that a privately employed expert need only be “a licensed psychiatrist or a licensed clinical psychologist.” Because this amendment did not come into force until after Allen’s trial, we express no opinion on its effect or validity. 

17 

       Where a statute designates express qualifications for an
expert witness, the witness must satisfy the statutory criteria
in order to testify as an expert.  See Hinkley v. Koehler, 269
Va. 82, 87, 606 S.E.2d ___, ___ (2005); Perdieu v. Blackstone
Family Practice Ctr., Inc., 264 Va. 408, 419, 568 S.E.2d 703,
709 (2002); Sami v. Varn, 260 Va. 280, 283, 535 S.E.2d 172, 174
(2000).  Nothing in Code § 37.1-70.8(A), as applicable at the
time of Allen’s trial, or elsewhere in the SVPA expressly
requires or by implication suggests that a mental health expert
employed or appointed to assist a prisoner must be licensed to
practice in Virginia.  In the absence of express statutory
requirements for the qualification of an expert witness in this
particular type of proceeding, we will apply the general rules
applicable to expert testimony in other civil cases.  See Code
§ 8.01-401.3.
    The sole purpose of permitting expert testimony is to
assist the trier of fact to understand the evidence presented or
to determine a fact in issue.  Id.; Santen v. Tuthill, 265 Va.
492, 498, 578 S.E.2d 788, 792 (2003); John v. Im, 263 Va. 315,
319, 559 S.E.2d 694, 696 (2002).  Generally, a witness is
qualified to testify as an expert when the witness possesses
sufficient knowledge, skill, or experience to make the witness

18 

   competent to testify as an expert on the subject matter at
issue.  See Sami, 260 Va. at 284, 535 S.E.2d at 174; Noll v.
Rahal, 219 Va. 795, 800, 250 S.E.2d 741, 744 (1979).  “In
essence, all that is necessary for a witness to qualify as an
expert is that the witness have sufficient knowledge of the
subject to give value to the witness’s opinion.”  Velazquez v.
Commonwealth, 263 Va. 95, 103, 557 S.E.2d 213, 218 (2002).
Without question, Dr. Foley’s education, employment experience,
and professional knowledge and skill with respect to the
identification and treatment of sexually violent offenders
qualified him to render an opinion that would assist the trial
court.
    The Commonwealth contends, however, that the trial court
further erred in not rejecting Dr. Foley’s testimony and
granting the Commonwealth’s motion to reconsider because his
testimony was based on an improper standard, thus demonstrating
that he lacked a sufficient appreciation of the requirements for
finding that Allen is a sexually violent predator under the
SVPA.  We disagree.
    “The admission of expert testimony is committed to the
sound discretion of the trial judge, and we will [reject] a
trial court’s decision only where that court has abused its

19 

   discretion.”  Brown v. Corbin, 244 Va. 528, 531, 423 S.E.2d 176,
178 (1992); see also Hinkley, 269 Va. at 91, 606 S.E.2d at ___.
Similarly, when the admission of expert witness testimony is
challenged in a post-trial proceeding, the determination whether
that testimony was properly received is a matter committed to
the trial court’s discretion.  When the admissibility of the
expert’s testimony is subsequently challenged on appeal, that
testimony must be viewed as a whole.  See Hussen v.
Commonwealth, 257 Va. 93, 99, 511 S.E.2d 106, 109 (1999).
    While the Commonwealth can point to isolated statements in
Dr. Foley’s testimony and in his written evaluation of Allen
that do not track the precise language of the definition of a
sexually violent predator in the SVPA, it also is clear that Dr.
Foley was aware of that standard.  Indeed, in his written
evaluation Dr. Foley quotes language from Code § 37.1-70.1
defining the standard almost verbatim.  Moreover, even if we
were to agree w

Supply Chain Effects of Implementing Blockchain Technology for Logistics

  

Supply Chain Effects of Implementing Blockchain Technology for Logistics

Name 

Institutional Affiliation 

  

Abstract 

The blockchain technology continues to gain recognition in the international logistics industry following the successful adoption of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies as modes of settling transactions. The technology ensures the security of transaction data through the decentralized storage of the transaction details as well as increasing the difficulty of changing the data. Currently, a number of businesses have adopted the blockchain technology in their supply chain management to enhance their operational efficiencies and consistency in meeting their quality demands. The current paper focuses on identifying some of the effects of adopting the blockchain technologies in contemporary logistics activities as well as the suggested applications in the future. 

Keywords: Blockchain, supply chain, logistics, Bitcoin

Introduction

The primary concept in supply chain management is the management of the flow or distribution of information, goods, and services effectively to minimize risks and enhance performance. Managing contemporary supply chains is a highly complicated activity due to the number of payments, information shared, the magnitude of distribution networks, and geographical extent that affects company logistics. As argued by Soosay & Hyland (2015), the rapidly occurring changes in the economy have necessitated various organizations to cooperate more closely to enhance the efficiency of their processes and increase the overall performance of the supply chain. Tsou (2013) observes that the supply chain collaboration offers a number of benefits that include enhanced service levels and cost reductions in addition to efficient and faster response to changes. 

Nonetheless, the success of the collaborations between firms primarily depends on the levels of commitment and engagement by the partners involved in the supply chains (Moreira, Ferreira, & Zimmermann, 2018). Ralston, Richey, & Grawe (2017) point out some of the challenges in realizing successful such as differences in the application of information technologies in the supply chains, contrasting organizational objectives, varying or conflicting financial decisions, and power differences. The increasing numbers of stakeholders involved in the supply chains are partially responsible for such problems (Casey & Wong, 2017). 

Blockchain continues to receive significant amounts of attention by logistics experts following the acknowledgment of the contributions of early cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ethereum in the financial sector. Staples et al. (2017) insist that the blockchain technology has the far-reaching consequences that include changing industries, supply chains, and company cultures among others. The blockchain technology is widely considered a secure method of conducting transactions between multiple entities through digital decentralized ledgers while eliminating the need for mediators (Swan, 2017). The technology is important because the intermediaries could introduce bureaucratic processes that lead to unnecessary disruptions or delays in supply chains. Logistics experts tout blockchain technology as an appropriate solution to trust problems encountered in supply chains in addition to suggesting that companies should adopt the blockchain applications to sustain their competitive advantages (Kshetri, 2018). 

Companies such as Maersk and Walmart have already initiated plans to incorporate the blockchain technology in their operations due to the benefits of the application in supply chain management. Understanding the implications of the blockchain technology in logistics and supply chain management is important despite its application by firms still being in its early stages. According to Kshetri (2018), researchers already acknowledge the potential of blockchain in improving the quality measurement solutions and enhancing tracking and tracing activities. Moreover, firms involved in the logistics business have numerous opportunities with the expansion and uptake of the blockchain technology in their operations (Nowinski & Kozma, 2017). A potential benefit of blockchain is the enhancement of the collaborations and increase in the number of solutions to supply chain partners (Nakasumi, 2017). Thus, the objective of the current paper assesses the impacts of adopting the blockchain technology in supply chains in contemporary companies as well as analyzing the background of the technology. 

How Blockchain Works

Heutger & Kuckelhaus (2017) describe blockchain as a technology that involves a distributed ledger and with the capacity to permanently and securely record any transactions completed between entities. The technology eliminates the need for mediators whose previous responsibilities in traditional supply chain models included verifying, documenting, and coordinating transactions (Swan, 2015). Blockchain achieves this by allowing various parties to share databases without the need for third parties thus changing the supply chains into distributed systems rather than centralized or decentralized systems. As such, the blockchain technology has the effect of freeing data from centralized storage systems and enhancing the sharing of information between business partners (Nakasumi, 2017). As Pilkington (2016) observes, the completed transactions are secured through the application of cryptographic methods and this eliminates the risks of hacking or data losses. The three important features of the blockchain technology include decentralization, verification, and immutability. 

The decentralization results from the operation of the network by members rather than depending on a centralized infrastructure or authority that established trust in the traditional supply chain models. Any transaction added to the digital ledger has to be shared inside the peer-to-peer network in blockchain and all the members retain local copies of the contracts. The requirement for all entities in the network to use public-private-key cryptography prior to sharing transactions with other partners over the network ensures that blockchain is verified. Furthermore, only the firms or individuals who hold the private keys have the ability to initiate the transactions and this helps in eliminating interference in the system by unauthorized persons. Nonetheless, the observed risk of the technology is that the disassociation of the private keys from real-world identities allows the partners to remain anonymous and this creates the risks of abuse (Staples et al., 2017). 

The immutability of the blockchain technology results from the application of consensus algorithm that allows various transactions to be sorted together into new blocks. The created blocks are accessible to the network members who have the authority to assess and confirm the recorded transactions. A block is rejected in situations where the network members cannot agree on its validity following its addition to the chain. The block is confirmed and added to the network if the members reach a consensus on the validity of the recorded transactions. The verification of each block leads to the generation of a cryptographic hash that connects different blocks created earlier. Consequently, the connection and interdependency that exists between the various blocks result in the formation of a chain. The attempts to retroactively change the recorded transactions are impossible due to the need to manually change the local transaction records entered in the members’ devices as well as changing each block’s cryptographic hash throughout the entire chain. 

Blockchain addresses a number of shortcomings associated with centralized architectures in supply chain management due to its distributed nature. For instance, the technology allows all the network members to access similar and verified information in addition to increasing the trust levels among the members without the need of third parties. Moreover, the technology automatically records all transactions between different entities in the network while eliminating the role of mediators. Smith (2018) suggest that such transactions could include various deeds of ownership, carbon credits, and digital money among others. The recording and distribution of all transactions over a number of nodes ensure that the blockchain technology is highly transparent to all members while the elimination of a central authority in managing the blockchain ensures that it is scalable and efficient. The records cannot be erased and this also enhances transparency. Blockchain also helps organizations to complete transactions without relying on traditional banks or exposing themselves to the effects of currency exchange rates. However, the early stages of adoption of blockchain in supply chain management, data security concerns, low acceptance by industry stakeholder, regulatory uncertainty, and limited throughput are some of the challenges that are associated with the technology. 

Background of Blockchain Technology

The successful operations of industries and governments depend on vital transactions such as process coordination, registration, voting, notarization, escrow, and payments. Various trusted third-parties including banks, service providers in particular industries, accounting firms, legal firms, banks, and government agencies had central roles in facilitating such transactions in traditional models. According to Heutger & Kuckelhaus (2017), the idea of a distributed computing has existed for almost three decades following its introduction in the early 1990s. Pilkington (2016) observes that the initial purpose of introducing the concept of the distributed computing aimed at preventing double-spending although issues such as anonymity and lack of compatibility between centralization reduced its early incorporation in supply chains. However, the roots of blockchain can be traced to Satoshi Nakamoto who invented Bitcoin and pioneered the idea of the technology to develop decentralized digital ledgers that could be operated through anonymous consensus in 2008. The introduction of blockchains revolutionized the approaches used in supporting the transactions by eliminating the need for trusted third parties. Instead, the entities involved in a transaction would depend on the blockchains operated on a technology platform. This resulted in the creation of the Bitcoin cryptocurrency that was used as the public account of the transactions completed on the blockchain network. 

Petersen, Hackius, & See (2017) suggest that an increased recognition of the blockchain technology in financial activities occurred during 2015 although the logistics and supply chain community was slower in realizing the importance of blockchain in their processes. The original paper published by Satoshi Nakamoto initially separated block and chain although the two words were joined to form “blockchain” around 2016. The original application of blockchain was in supporting the Bitcoin cryptocurrency although the application of the technology has expanded significantly in other platforms. The concept of blockchain 2.0 was first introduced in 2014 to describe a number of emerging applications based on the technology. An example is a newly developed programming language that supports the creation of sophisticated smart contracts that feature self-paying invoices following the delivery of shipments as well as the automated share certificates that release dividends to shareholders when their profits exceed specified limits. 

The financial sector has undoubtedly been the most significant adopter of blockchain technology. However, the blockchains can be used in representing information or transactions conducted by entities in any society or industry in a similar fashion as the traditional databases. Nonetheless, the blockchains have significant unique properties that distinguish them from the traditional databases. The blockchains are widely categorized as private, consortium, and public blockchains depending on the level of participation in the use and operation of their use (Staples et al., 2017). The private blockchains incorporate strong access control to reduce the influence of the public in the databases. The stability of the blockchains depends on the technical protocols and system’s software’s correctness, confirmation of integrity criteria, application of strong cryptographic measures, and various incentives to increase the participation of members in the system. 

Current Effects of Blockchain Technology on Supply Chains

The blockchain technology has had significant impacts on the financial sector following the introduction of several cryptocurrencies that continue to gain recognition as acceptable alternative payment methods in many regions. Blockchains are currently used widely as distributed accounts for various cryptocurrencies such as Litecoin, Bitcoin, and Ethereum among others. Maintaining track of financial records is a critical activity in logistics due to the importance of such data in planning processes and assessment of an organization’s performance (Dobrovnik, Herold, Furst, & Kummer, 2018). The stability, reliability, and security of the Bitcoin cryptocurrency demonstrate the potential of the blockchain technology in overcoming the shortcomings of traditional systems. For instance, most of the centralized infrastructures associated with the traditional supply chain management systems have been exposed to hacking and other malpractices from the central authorities. However, many firms involved in the logistics and supply chain management businesses show considerable levels of reluctance in incorporating the technology in their critical operations due to fears of risks. 

Trust is an integral concept in global supply chain management as various entities build their relationships with their foreign partners based on this trait (Moreira, Ferreira, & Zimmermann, 2018). In traditional supply chain models, third-party mediators such as lawyers and various government agencies used signed contracts to help in ensuring organizations delivered the services and goods. However, the introduction of the blockchain technologies has resulted in reduced reliance on the third parties in completing the international transactions as the contemporary organizations use established networks to maintain the trust levels. The terms of exchange during the international transactions are also important due to the legal implications of failing to adhere to agreed conditions as well as the influence of foreign governments in business activities. One of the current effects of the blockchain technologies in supply chains is determining the nature of the exchanges and their working through established network protocols. The technology also ensures that the members of the shared networks understand the possibilities and limitations of their international transactions. 

Firms in the logistics industry understand the importance of committing to binding agreements when doing business with international partners. Breaching the contracts can have several adverse consequences on companies and their suppliers, and these include incurred financial losses as well as lawsuits and damaged reputations. The adoption of the blockchain technologies allows organizations and their suppliers to form binding contracts on established blockchain networks through applications such as smart contracts. The smart contracts allow the partners to recall the agreement terms as shared in the networks(Moreira, Ferreira, & Zimmermann, 2018). Nonetheless, the new technology does not entirely eliminate the role of third parties in business contracts although it changes how such agreements are recorded. Furthermore, the consensus on the accuracy of the data stored in the networks is also important during the reconciliation of the records. 

The blockchain technologies have revolutionized how organizations in the global supply chains achieve agreement on the transacted information stored in their networks. For example, meeting specified conditions grows the block chains and ensures that these remain in the official records for future reference. The stability of the blockchain technologies increases when the number of members increases due to the triggering of the network effect. Thus, the increased implementation of the blockchain technologies by companies in the logistics and supply chain management is important in ensuring that the number of members exceeds the critical levels to enhance the acceptance of the technology. Nonetheless, the initial requirements associated with blockchain continue to inhibit the adoption of technology. 

Application of the Blockchain Technologies in Contemporary Businesses

The ability of entities to engage in the global transfer of funds through blockchains without relying on traditional banking systems has increased the convenience for organizations that have globalized supply chains. For instance, Tomcar – an Australian automaker – has adopted Bitcoin as its primary currency for paying its global suppliers and this helps in ensuring that the company does not incur additional costs and easing its international transactions. The company uses the CoinJar payment gateway in receiving payments to ensure that its overseas customers would not have concerns over high fees charged on credit cards as well as the changes in exchange rates. The move is significant because it reduces the transaction fees from 5% to about 0.03% when the international customers used the cryptocurrency instead of credit cards (Marr, 2018). Moreover, opting to use the stable and secure cryptocurrencies helps in reducing the costs of acquiring vehicle parts to Tomcar from international the international suppliers and this reduces the costs Tomcar vehicles thus increasing the company’s sales volumes. Other notable companies that use cryptocurrencies in facilitating international payments include Baidu and Bitfash. 

Companies in the food business require solid records that would assist them in tracing various ingredients or products from their sources. Moreover, the increased customer awareness of food production practices and the demand for ethically sourced ingredients has led to a shift in food production practices. Consequently, a number of companies have adopted the use of the blockchain technologies in their supply chains to help in enhancing accountability and ensuring consistency in quality. For example, Walmart has adopted blockchain as a method of keeping track of the quality of various meat products such as beef and pork acquired from its suppliers in China. The company uses the blockchain technology in ensuring that it maintains all the processing, storage, and sell-by-dates of all pieces of meat used by Walmart. The transparency that results from using blockchain technologies helps in ensuring that the customers understand that they are dealing with firms that support sustainable production, environmental stewardship, avoid genetically modified organisms, and oppose animal brutality. The technology also helps in determining the accurate sources of food contaminations and identifying the appropriate remedial measures. Other notable companies that use the blockchain technologies for the same purpose include Dole, Tyson, Nestle, and Unilever among others. 

Tracking and maintaining data is also critical to companies in the mining sector due to the high prices of quality minerals in the international markets. Various organizations adopt different strategies to eliminate the risks of purchasing fake or forged prized minerals such as diamonds and gold from their suppliers. The blockchain technology has been cited by stakeholders in mining as a method of overcoming such malpractices and ensuring that the customers receive quality products. For example, BHP Billiton – a leading mining company – has adopted the blockchain technology in its operations to enhance its ability to collect and store data from its international suppliers in all stages of the mining process. Moreover, the BHP Billiton considers the blockchain technologies as critical in enhancing the company’s interactions with global partners. 

De Beers, a large South African Diamond producing company, also applies the technology in tracking the mined diamond stones from their points of origin to the point where the polished products are sold to its customers. The use of the blockchain technology, in this case, helps in ensuring that De Beers avoids dealing in diamonds sourced from conflict zones (commonly referred to as “blood” or “conflict diamonds”) while ensuring that its clients receive genuine products. Another application of the blockchain technology in the logistics industry is the monitoring of specific vehicles in an organization’s fleet. The logistics companies can use the technology in verifying the data on each vehicle’s previous performance as well as their maintenance histories. 

The adoption of the blockchain technologies in supply chains has also created investment opportunities to a number of entrepreneurs and startup supply chain businesses. For example, Cloud Logistics has invested in expanding the adoption of blockchain by offering various supply chain solutions based on the technology to reduce costs and enhance efficiencies to organizations in the supply chain industry. Experts in the logistics business suggest that the number of vendors offering the supply chain solutions based on the blockchain technologies will increase in the future following the demand for novel solutions to the logistics challenges encountered by multinational companies. Additionally, established freighters such as Maersk have already adopted the blockchain technologies to assist them in effectively tracking the movement of containers and goods through secure and authenticated data. Maersk acknowledges that using traditional methods of recording and storing important information based on application programming interfaces and electronic data interchanges are unreliable due to the risks of their manipulations by unscrupulous entities. 

Expected Future Effects of Blockchain Technology

Smart Contracts 

The blockchain technology has the advantage of simplifying the storage of transaction data of exchanged assets as well as the execution of the stored transactions in an organization’s digital ledger using various computer programs. Such ledgers are referred to as “smart contracts” although such data may be inapplicable in monitoring or executing legal contracts (Asharaf & Adash, 2017). Smart contracts can be described as self-executing agreements written in codes and binding between sellers and buyers on the contract terms that are distributed and contained in a decentralized blockchain network (Gerard, 2017). The smart contracts allow the completion of trusted agreements and transactions to be conducted by anonymous and disparate parties while eliminating the need for external enforcement mechanisms, legal systems, or central authorities. The Bitcoin blockchain technology facilitates the formation of smart contracts using simplified computer languages while various competing technologies that include Litecoin and Ethereum use the “Turing complete” computer language (Iyer & Dannen, 2018). 

Despite the identified advantages of the blockchain technology in contemporary supply chain management, the adoption of smart contracts as substitutes to traditional legal contracts remains underexploited. Stakeholders continue to debate on the practicality of adopting the smart contracts created using blockchain as alternatives to legal contracts. Additionally, the diversity of the computer languages used in creating the smart contracts raises problems to organizations due to the computational complexities involved in the blockchain technologies. The low uptake of the blockchain technologies by organizations in the logistics business also creates challenges in using the smart contracts in business agreements. Nonetheless, industry players observe that smart contracts and other blockchain technologies have the potential of revolutionizing logistics operations in the future. 

Financial Services

The adoption of the Bitcoin cryptocurrency as an alternative form of payment to traditional methods remains in its early stages. However, financial experts suggest that the digital currencies formed using the blockchain technologies will have far-reaching effects and exerting significant changes in industry practices. The blockchain technology facilitates the secure transfer of digital currencies between entities without such transfers being subjected to recording or processing by payment services or banks. Consequently, the experts suggest that the blockchain technologies have the ability to create and supporting “programmable money” that comprises of various currencies with policies that are automatically enforced (Staples et al., 2017). Moreover, firms involved in logistics and supply chain management can use the digital currencies and blockchain technologies in making or receiving international payments from suppliers in other countries. One of the projected advantages of using Bitcoin and other digital currencies in international payment is that it protects logistics companies from the problems associated with currency fluctuations due to inflation, natural disasters, or political interferences. The logistics and supply chain management industry can also use the blockchain technologies in registering, clearing, and settling securities. 

Anonymity is a key feature in the blockchain technology because the real-world identities of individuals or organizations involved in various transactions are not mandatory following the use of cryptographic keys. For instance, the blockchain technology allows agents transacting Bitcoins to identify themselves pseudonymously and this raises the risks of financial malpractices and other unethical practices. As such, the use of blockchain technologies in receiving or making payments with foreign-based partners faces significant challenges due to international regulations such as the Counter-Terrorism Financing and Anti-Money Laundering policies. Another significant problem that continues to inhibit the adoption of the blockchain technologies in logistics and supply chains is the issue of loss in confidentiality and privacy during the integration of personal data in various blockchain-based systems to conform to the CTF/AML requirements. 

Summary and Conclusions

The objective of the current study was identifying the effects of adopting the blockchain technology in logistics, and the paper reviews some of the current and future effects of blockchain on supply chains. The blockchain technology is an important emergent technology that has the capacity to enhance operational efficiencies and lower transaction costs to firms in the logistics business during supply management activities. However, Heutger & Kuckelhaus (2017) suggest that the idea of distributed computing has been in existence for more than two decades although the recognition of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies based on blockchain increased significantly around 2015. The current study reveals that the blockchain technology has a number of potential benefits in supply chain management and logistics operations. One of the advantages of adopting the technology is that it eliminates the role of third parties in mediating transactions thus overcoming the problems associated with trust issues between partners while hastening the completion of business agreements. Supply chain management primarily focuses on managing the flow of goods and services effectively to eliminate the risks of losses. However, the numbers of payments, the quantity of shared information, and the extent of distribution networks have made logistics a complicated operation in contemporary organizations. Consequently, industry players point out the need for the introduction of innovative solutions to address some of the challenges in modern supply chains. The blockchain technology is widely regarded as one of the future technologies that have the potential of changing supply chain management activities following the introduction of cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ethereum (Staples et al., 2017). 

Swan (2017) argues that the blockchain technology offers a safe platform for conducting transactions with multiple entities via digital decentralized ledgers while concurrently removing the roles of third-party mediators. This is important in contemporary organizations due to the need to prevent unnecessary disruptions and delays in supply chains that can be caused by the bureaucratic processes associated with traditional methods of conducting transactions. Moreover, Kshetri (2018) observes that experts in the logistics industry widely consider the blockchain technology as the most preferable solution in addressing trust issues between partners. Decentralization and immutability are important features of the blockchain technology because they help in ensuring the validity of the completed transactions while increasing accessibility to network members. Another important benefit of adopting the blockchain technology in logistics is that it helps in simplifying the storage of transaction data of exchanged goods. Asharaf & Adash (2017) propose that organizations in the logistics business should consider adopting the “smart contracts” applications to automate the completion of business agreements. Cryptocurrencies based on the blockchain technology have also proven stable and secure since Bitcoin was first used as a mode of payment in 2009. The stability is important in logistics because it helps in protecting organizations in the logistics business from problems associated with issues such as currency fluctuations, exchange rates, and inflation among others. 

However, the adoption of the blockchain technologies in supply chain management remains low due to the number of challenges that must be addressed before blockchain receives widespread approval from logistics companies. For example, the transactions conducted through the blockchain technology are anonymous in nature and this prevents authorities from reviewing the activities of some of the users to identify criminals and fraudsters. Bitcoin’s anonymity has been accused of facilitating illegal activities on the dark web and this raises serious concerns among the industry players in the logistics business. Nonetheless, gaining acceptance in the logistics industry is critical because it determines the effectiveness of blockchain technology in changing operations and business practices.

  

References

Asharaf, S., & Adarsh, S. (2017). Decentralized computing using blockchain technologies and smart contracts: Emerging research and opportunities. Hershey, PENN: IGI Global. 

Casey, M. J., & Wong, P. (2017). Global supply chains are about to get better, thanks to Blockchain. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2017/03/global-supply-chains-are-about-to-get-better-thanks-to-blockchain

Dobrovnik, M., Herold, D., Fürst, E., & Kummer, S. (2018). Blockchain for and in Logistics: What to Adopt and Where to Start. Logistics, 2(3), 1-14.

Gerard, D. (2017). Attack of the 50 foot blockchain: Bitcoin, blockchain, Ethereum & smart contracts. David Gerard.

Heutger, M., & Kuckelhaus, M. (2017). Blockchain trend report. Retrieved from https://www.logistics.dhl/content/dam/dhl/global/core/documents/pdf/glo-core-blockchain-trend-report.pdf

Iyer, K., & Dannen, C. (2018). Building games with Ethereum smart contracts: Intermediate projects for solidity developers. Berkeley, CA: Apress. 

Kshetri, N. (2018). 1 blockchain’s role in meeting key supply chain management objectives. International Journal of Information Management, 39, 80-89. 

Marr, B. (2018). How the blockchain will transform the supply chain and logistics industry. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2018/03/23/how-blockchain-will-transform-the-supply-chain-and-logistics-industry/#44447e915fec

Moreira, A. C., Ferreira, L. M. D. F., & Zimmermann, R. A. (2018). Innovation and supply chain management: Relationship, collaboration and strategies. Cham: Sp

Supply Chain Effects of Implementing Blockchain Technology for Logistics

  

Supply Chain Effects of Implementing Blockchain Technology for Logistics

Name 

Institutional Affiliation 

  

Abstract 

The blockchain technology continues to gain recognition in the international logistics industry following the successful adoption of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies as modes of settling transactions. The technology ensures the security of transaction data through the decentralized storage of the transaction details as well as increasing the difficulty of changing the data. Currently, a number of businesses have adopted the blockchain technology in their supply chain management to enhance their operational efficiencies and consistency in meeting their quality demands. The current paper focuses on identifying some of the effects of adopting the blockchain technologies in contemporary logistics activities as well as the suggested applications in the future. 

Keywords: Blockchain, supply chain, logistics, Bitcoin

Introduction

The primary concept in supply chain management is the management of the flow or distribution of information, goods, and services effectively to minimize risks and enhance performance. Managing contemporary supply chains is a highly complicated activity due to the number of payments, information shared, the magnitude of distribution networks, and geographical extent that affects company logistics. As argued by Soosay & Hyland (2015), the rapidly occurring changes in the economy have necessitated various organizations to cooperate more closely to enhance the efficiency of their processes and increase the overall performance of the supply chain. Tsou (2013) observes that the supply chain collaboration offers a number of benefits that include enhanced service levels and cost reductions in addition to efficient and faster response to changes. 

Nonetheless, the success of the collaborations between firms primarily depends on the levels of commitment and engagement by the partners involved in the supply chains (Moreira, Ferreira, & Zimmermann, 2018). Ralston, Richey, & Grawe (2017) point out some of the challenges in realizing successful such as differences in the application of information technologies in the supply chains, contrasting organizational objectives, varying or conflicting financial decisions, and power differences. The increasing numbers of stakeholders involved in the supply chains are partially responsible for such problems (Casey & Wong, 2017). 

Blockchain continues to receive significant amounts of attention by logistics experts following the acknowledgment of the contributions of early cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ethereum in the financial sector. Staples et al. (2017) insist that the blockchain technology has the far-reaching consequences that include changing industries, supply chains, and company cultures among others. The blockchain technology is widely considered a secure method of conducting transactions between multiple entities through digital decentralized ledgers while eliminating the need for mediators (Swan, 2017). The technology is important because the intermediaries could introduce bureaucratic processes that lead to unnecessary disruptions or delays in supply chains. Logistics experts tout blockchain technology as an appropriate solution to trust problems encountered in supply chains in addition to suggesting that companies should adopt the blockchain applications to sustain their competitive advantages (Kshetri, 2018). 

Companies such as Maersk and Walmart have already initiated plans to incorporate the blockchain technology in their operations due to the benefits of the application in supply chain management. Understanding the implications of the blockchain technology in logistics and supply chain management is important despite its application by firms still being in its early stages. According to Kshetri (2018), researchers already acknowledge the potential of blockchain in improving the quality measurement solutions and enhancing tracking and tracing activities. Moreover, firms involved in the logistics business have numerous opportunities with the expansion and uptake of the blockchain technology in their operations (Nowinski & Kozma, 2017). A potential benefit of blockchain is the enhancement of the collaborations and increase in the number of solutions to supply chain partners (Nakasumi, 2017). Thus, the objective of the current paper assesses the impacts of adopting the blockchain technology in supply chains in contemporary companies as well as analyzing the background of the technology. 

How Blockchain Works

Heutger & Kuckelhaus (2017) describe blockchain as a technology that involves a distributed ledger and with the capacity to permanently and securely record any transactions completed between entities. The technology eliminates the need for mediators whose previous responsibilities in traditional supply chain models included verifying, documenting, and coordinating transactions (Swan, 2015). Blockchain achieves this by allowing various parties to share databases without the need for third parties thus changing the supply chains into distributed systems rather than centralized or decentralized systems. As such, the blockchain technology has the effect of freeing data from centralized storage systems and enhancing the sharing of information between business partners (Nakasumi, 2017). As Pilkington (2016) observes, the completed transactions are secured through the application of cryptographic methods and this eliminates the risks of hacking or data losses. The three important features of the blockchain technology include decentralization, verification, and immutability. 

The decentralization results from the operation of the network by members rather than depending on a centralized infrastructure or authority that established trust in the traditional supply chain models. Any transaction added to the digital ledger has to be shared inside the peer-to-peer network in blockchain and all the members retain local copies of the contracts. The requirement for all entities in the network to use public-private-key cryptography prior to sharing transactions with other partners over the network ensures that blockchain is verified. Furthermore, only the firms or individuals who hold the private keys have the ability to initiate the transactions and this helps in eliminating interference in the system by unauthorized persons. Nonetheless, the observed risk of the technology is that the disassociation of the private keys from real-world identities allows the partners to remain anonymous and this creates the risks of abuse (Staples et al., 2017). 

The immutability of the blockchain technology results from the application of consensus algorithm that allows various transactions to be sorted together into new blocks. The created blocks are accessible to the network members who have the authority to assess and confirm the recorded transactions. A block is rejected in situations where the network members cannot agree on its validity following its addition to the chain. The block is confirmed and added to the network if the members reach a consensus on the validity of the recorded transactions. The verification of each block leads to the generation of a cryptographic hash that connects different blocks created earlier. Consequently, the connection and interdependency that exists between the various blocks result in the formation of a chain. The attempts to retroactively change the recorded transactions are impossible due to the need to manually change the local transaction records entered in the members’ devices as well as changing each block’s cryptographic hash throughout the entire chain. 

Blockchain addresses a number of shortcomings associated with centralized architectures in supply chain management due to its distributed nature. For instance, the technology allows all the network members to access similar and verified information in addition to increasing the trust levels among the members without the need of third parties. Moreover, the technology automatically records all transactions between different entities in the network while eliminating the role of mediators. Smith (2018) suggest that such transactions could include various deeds of ownership, carbon credits, and digital money among others. The recording and distribution of all transactions over a number of nodes ensure that the blockchain technology is highly transparent to all members while the elimination of a central authority in managing the blockchain ensures that it is scalable and efficient. The records cannot be erased and this also enhances transparency. Blockchain also helps organizations to complete transactions without relying on traditional banks or exposing themselves to the effects of currency exchange rates. However, the early stages of adoption of blockchain in supply chain management, data security concerns, low acceptance by industry stakeholder, regulatory uncertainty, and limited throughput are some of the challenges that are associated with the technology. 

Background of Blockchain Technology

The successful operations of industries and governments depend on vital transactions such as process coordination, registration, voting, notarization, escrow, and payments. Various trusted third-parties including banks, service providers in particular industries, accounting firms, legal firms, banks, and government agencies had central roles in facilitating such transactions in traditional models. According to Heutger & Kuckelhaus (2017), the idea of a distributed computing has existed for almost three decades following its introduction in the early 1990s. Pilkington (2016) observes that the initial purpose of introducing the concept of the distributed computing aimed at preventing double-spending although issues such as anonymity and lack of compatibility between centralization reduced its early incorporation in supply chains. However, the roots of blockchain can be traced to Satoshi Nakamoto who invented Bitcoin and pioneered the idea of the technology to develop decentralized digital ledgers that could be operated through anonymous consensus in 2008. The introduction of blockchains revolutionized the approaches used in supporting the transactions by eliminating the need for trusted third parties. Instead, the entities involved in a transaction would depend on the blockchains operated on a technology platform. This resulted in the creation of the Bitcoin cryptocurrency that was used as the public account of the transactions completed on the blockchain network. 

Petersen, Hackius, & See (2017) suggest that an increased recognition of the blockchain technology in financial activities occurred during 2015 although the logistics and supply chain community was slower in realizing the importance of blockchain in their processes. The original paper published by Satoshi Nakamoto initially separated block and chain although the two words were joined to form “blockchain” around 2016. The original application of blockchain was in supporting the Bitcoin cryptocurrency although the application of the technology has expanded significantly in other platforms. The concept of blockchain 2.0 was first introduced in 2014 to describe a number of emerging applications based on the technology. An example is a newly developed programming language that supports the creation of sophisticated smart contracts that feature self-paying invoices following the delivery of shipments as well as the automated share certificates that release dividends to shareholders when their profits exceed specified limits. 

The financial sector has undoubtedly been the most significant adopter of blockchain technology. However, the blockchains can be used in representing information or transactions conducted by entities in any society or industry in a similar fashion as the traditional databases. Nonetheless, the blockchains have significant unique properties that distinguish them from the traditional databases. The blockchains are widely categorized as private, consortium, and public blockchains depending on the level of participation in the use and operation of their use (Staples et al., 2017). The private blockchains incorporate strong access control to reduce the influence of the public in the databases. The stability of the blockchains depends on the technical protocols and system’s software’s correctness, confirmation of integrity criteria, application of strong cryptographic measures, and various incentives to increase the participation of members in the system. 

Current Effects of Blockchain Technology on Supply Chains

The blockchain technology has had significant impacts on the financial sector following the introduction of several cryptocurrencies that continue to gain recognition as acceptable alternative payment methods in many regions. Blockchains are currently used widely as distributed accounts for various cryptocurrencies such as Litecoin, Bitcoin, and Ethereum among others. Maintaining track of financial records is a critical activity in logistics due to the importance of such data in planning processes and assessment of an organization’s performance (Dobrovnik, Herold, Furst, & Kummer, 2018). The stability, reliability, and security of the Bitcoin cryptocurrency demonstrate the potential of the blockchain technology in overcoming the shortcomings of traditional systems. For instance, most of the centralized infrastructures associated with the traditional supply chain management systems have been exposed to hacking and other malpractices from the central authorities. However, many firms involved in the logistics and supply chain management businesses show considerable levels of reluctance in incorporating the technology in their critical operations due to fears of risks. 

Trust is an integral concept in global supply chain management as various entities build their relationships with their foreign partners based on this trait (Moreira, Ferreira, & Zimmermann, 2018). In traditional supply chain models, third-party mediators such as lawyers and various government agencies used signed contracts to help in ensuring organizations delivered the services and goods. However, the introduction of the blockchain technologies has resulted in reduced reliance on the third parties in completing the international transactions as the contemporary organizations use established networks to maintain the trust levels. The terms of exchange during the international transactions are also important due to the legal implications of failing to adhere to agreed conditions as well as the influence of foreign governments in business activities. One of the current effects of the blockchain technologies in supply chains is determining the nature of the exchanges and their working through established network protocols. The technology also ensures that the members of the shared networks understand the possibilities and limitations of their international transactions. 

Firms in the logistics industry understand the importance of committing to binding agreements when doing business with international partners. Breaching the contracts can have several adverse consequences on companies and their suppliers, and these include incurred financial losses as well as lawsuits and damaged reputations. The adoption of the blockchain technologies allows organizations and their suppliers to form binding contracts on established blockchain networks through applications such as smart contracts. The smart contracts allow the partners to recall the agreement terms as shared in the networks(Moreira, Ferreira, & Zimmermann, 2018). Nonetheless, the new technology does not entirely eliminate the role of third parties in business contracts although it changes how such agreements are recorded. Furthermore, the consensus on the accuracy of the data stored in the networks is also important during the reconciliation of the records. 

The blockchain technologies have revolutionized how organizations in the global supply chains achieve agreement on the transacted information stored in their networks. For example, meeting specified conditions grows the block chains and ensures that these remain in the official records for future reference. The stability of the blockchain technologies increases when the number of members increases due to the triggering of the network effect. Thus, the increased implementation of the blockchain technologies by companies in the logistics and supply chain management is important in ensuring that the number of members exceeds the critical levels to enhance the acceptance of the technology. Nonetheless, the initial requirements associated with blockchain continue to inhibit the adoption of technology. 

Application of the Blockchain Technologies in Contemporary Businesses

The ability of entities to engage in the global transfer of funds through blockchains without relying on traditional banking systems has increased the convenience for organizations that have globalized supply chains. For instance, Tomcar – an Australian automaker – has adopted Bitcoin as its primary currency for paying its global suppliers and this helps in ensuring that the company does not incur additional costs and easing its international transactions. The company uses the CoinJar payment gateway in receiving payments to ensure that its overseas customers would not have concerns over high fees charged on credit cards as well as the changes in exchange rates. The move is significant because it reduces the transaction fees from 5% to about 0.03% when the international customers used the cryptocurrency instead of credit cards (Marr, 2018). Moreover, opting to use the stable and secure cryptocurrencies helps in reducing the costs of acquiring vehicle parts to Tomcar from international the international suppliers and this reduces the costs Tomcar vehicles thus increasing the company’s sales volumes. Other notable companies that use cryptocurrencies in facilitating international payments include Baidu and Bitfash. 

Companies in the food business require solid records that would assist them in tracing various ingredients or products from their sources. Moreover, the increased customer awareness of food production practices and the demand for ethically sourced ingredients has led to a shift in food production practices. Consequently, a number of companies have adopted the use of the blockchain technologies in their supply chains to help in enhancing accountability and ensuring consistency in quality. For example, Walmart has adopted blockchain as a method of keeping track of the quality of various meat products such as beef and pork acquired from its suppliers in China. The company uses the blockchain technology in ensuring that it maintains all the processing, storage, and sell-by-dates of all pieces of meat used by Walmart. The transparency that results from using blockchain technologies helps in ensuring that the customers understand that they are dealing with firms that support sustainable production, environmental stewardship, avoid genetically modified organisms, and oppose animal brutality. The technology also helps in determining the accurate sources of food contaminations and identifying the appropriate remedial measures. Other notable companies that use the blockchain technologies for the same purpose include Dole, Tyson, Nestle, and Unilever among others. 

Tracking and maintaining data is also critical to companies in the mining sector due to the high prices of quality minerals in the international markets. Various organizations adopt different strategies to eliminate the risks of purchasing fake or forged prized minerals such as diamonds and gold from their suppliers. The blockchain technology has been cited by stakeholders in mining as a method of overcoming such malpractices and ensuring that the customers receive quality products. For example, BHP Billiton – a leading mining company – has adopted the blockchain technology in its operations to enhance its ability to collect and store data from its international suppliers in all stages of the mining process. Moreover, the BHP Billiton considers the blockchain technologies as critical in enhancing the company’s interactions with global partners. 

De Beers, a large South African Diamond producing company, also applies the technology in tracking the mined diamond stones from their points of origin to the point where the polished products are sold to its customers. The use of the blockchain technology, in this case, helps in ensuring that De Beers avoids dealing in diamonds sourced from conflict zones (commonly referred to as “blood” or “conflict diamonds”) while ensuring that its clients receive genuine products. Another application of the blockchain technology in the logistics industry is the monitoring of specific vehicles in an organization’s fleet. The logistics companies can use the technology in verifying the data on each vehicle’s previous performance as well as their maintenance histories. 

The adoption of the blockchain technologies in supply chains has also created investment opportunities to a number of entrepreneurs and startup supply chain businesses. For example, Cloud Logistics has invested in expanding the adoption of blockchain by offering various supply chain solutions based on the technology to reduce costs and enhance efficiencies to organizations in the supply chain industry. Experts in the logistics business suggest that the number of vendors offering the supply chain solutions based on the blockchain technologies will increase in the future following the demand for novel solutions to the logistics challenges encountered by multinational companies. Additionally, established freighters such as Maersk have already adopted the blockchain technologies to assist them in effectively tracking the movement of containers and goods through secure and authenticated data. Maersk acknowledges that using traditional methods of recording and storing important information based on application programming interfaces and electronic data interchanges are unreliable due to the risks of their manipulations by unscrupulous entities. 

Expected Future Effects of Blockchain Technology

Smart Contracts 

The blockchain technology has the advantage of simplifying the storage of transaction data of exchanged assets as well as the execution of the stored transactions in an organization’s digital ledger using various computer programs. Such ledgers are referred to as “smart contracts” although such data may be inapplicable in monitoring or executing legal contracts (Asharaf & Adash, 2017). Smart contracts can be described as self-executing agreements written in codes and binding between sellers and buyers on the contract terms that are distributed and contained in a decentralized blockchain network (Gerard, 2017). The smart contracts allow the completion of trusted agreements and transactions to be conducted by anonymous and disparate parties while eliminating the need for external enforcement mechanisms, legal systems, or central authorities. The Bitcoin blockchain technology facilitates the formation of smart contracts using simplified computer languages while various competing technologies that include Litecoin and Ethereum use the “Turing complete” computer language (Iyer & Dannen, 2018). 

Despite the identified advantages of the blockchain technology in contemporary supply chain management, the adoption of smart contracts as substitutes to traditional legal contracts remains underexploited. Stakeholders continue to debate on the practicality of adopting the smart contracts created using blockchain as alternatives to legal contracts. Additionally, the diversity of the computer languages used in creating the smart contracts raises problems to organizations due to the computational complexities involved in the blockchain technologies. The low uptake of the blockchain technologies by organizations in the logistics business also creates challenges in using the smart contracts in business agreements. Nonetheless, industry players observe that smart contracts and other blockchain technologies have the potential of revolutionizing logistics operations in the future. 

Financial Services

The adoption of the Bitcoin cryptocurrency as an alternative form of payment to traditional methods remains in its early stages. However, financial experts suggest that the digital currencies formed using the blockchain technologies will have far-reaching effects and exerting significant changes in industry practices. The blockchain technology facilitates the secure transfer of digital currencies between entities without such transfers being subjected to recording or processing by payment services or banks. Consequently, the experts suggest that the blockchain technologies have the ability to create and supporting “programmable money” that comprises of various currencies with policies that are automatically enforced (Staples et al., 2017). Moreover, firms involved in logistics and supply chain management can use the digital currencies and blockchain technologies in making or receiving international payments from suppliers in other countries. One of the projected advantages of using Bitcoin and other digital currencies in international payment is that it protects logistics companies from the problems associated with currency fluctuations due to inflation, natural disasters, or political interferences. The logistics and supply chain management industry can also use the blockchain technologies in registering, clearing, and settling securities. 

Anonymity is a key feature in the blockchain technology because the real-world identities of individuals or organizations involved in various transactions are not mandatory following the use of cryptographic keys. For instance, the blockchain technology allows agents transacting Bitcoins to identify themselves pseudonymously and this raises the risks of financial malpractices and other unethical practices. As such, the use of blockchain technologies in receiving or making payments with foreign-based partners faces significant challenges due to international regulations such as the Counter-Terrorism Financing and Anti-Money Laundering policies. Another significant problem that continues to inhibit the adoption of the blockchain technologies in logistics and supply chains is the issue of loss in confidentiality and privacy during the integration of personal data in various blockchain-based systems to conform to the CTF/AML requirements. 

Summary and Conclusions

The objective of the current study was identifying the effects of adopting the blockchain technology in logistics, and the paper reviews some of the current and future effects of blockchain on supply chains. The blockchain technology is an important emergent technology that has the capacity to enhance operational efficiencies and lower transaction costs to firms in the logistics business during supply management activities. However, Heutger & Kuckelhaus (2017) suggest that the idea of distributed computing has been in existence for more than two decades although the recognition of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies based on blockchain increased significantly around 2015. The current study reveals that the blockchain technology has a number of potential benefits in supply chain management and logistics operations. One of the advantages of adopting the technology is that it eliminates the role of third parties in mediating transactions thus overcoming the problems associated with trust issues between partners while hastening the completion of business agreements. Supply chain management primarily focuses on managing the flow of goods and services effectively to eliminate the risks of losses. However, the numbers of payments, the quantity of shared information, and the extent of distribution networks have made logistics a complicated operation in contemporary organizations. Consequently, industry players point out the need for the introduction of innovative solutions to address some of the challenges in modern supply chains. The blockchain technology is widely regarded as one of the future technologies that have the potential of changing supply chain management activities following the introduction of cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ethereum (Staples et al., 2017). 

Swan (2017) argues that the blockchain technology offers a safe platform for conducting transactions with multiple entities via digital decentralized ledgers while concurrently removing the roles of third-party mediators. This is important in contemporary organizations due to the need to prevent unnecessary disruptions and delays in supply chains that can be caused by the bureaucratic processes associated with traditional methods of conducting transactions. Moreover, Kshetri (2018) observes that experts in the logistics industry widely consider the blockchain technology as the most preferable solution in addressing trust issues between partners. Decentralization and immutability are important features of the blockchain technology because they help in ensuring the validity of the completed transactions while increasing accessibility to network members. Another important benefit of adopting the blockchain technology in logistics is that it helps in simplifying the storage of transaction data of exchanged goods. Asharaf & Adash (2017) propose that organizations in the logistics business should consider adopting the “smart contracts” applications to automate the completion of business agreements. Cryptocurrencies based on the blockchain technology have also proven stable and secure since Bitcoin was first used as a mode of payment in 2009. The stability is important in logistics because it helps in protecting organizations in the logistics business from problems associated with issues such as currency fluctuations, exchange rates, and inflation among others. 

However, the adoption of the blockchain technologies in supply chain management remains low due to the number of challenges that must be addressed before blockchain receives widespread approval from logistics companies. For example, the transactions conducted through the blockchain technology are anonymous in nature and this prevents authorities from reviewing the activities of some of the users to identify criminals and fraudsters. Bitcoin’s anonymity has been accused of facilitating illegal activities on the dark web and this raises serious concerns among the industry players in the logistics business. Nonetheless, gaining acceptance in the logistics industry is critical because it determines the effectiveness of blockchain technology in changing operations and business practices.

  

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